Ethical value is an indicator of conduct that allows us to face everyday life. Thus, when we have to decide on a specific action (for example, whether to help someone or not) there is an evaluation that drives us to act generously or selfishly. Ethical Values
Two criteria for understanding ethical values: relativism and the universality of values
From the point of view of relativism, human values are fickle and depend on a series of circumstances ( education received, social context , historical moment, etc.). Thus, in an upper-class citizen with favorable living conditions, it is possible to have different values for a person who lives in the favela and is socially excluded. This approach is deterministic, as many vital circumstances imply multiple human values.
Some philosophers believe that values are not relative, but universal and objective. Its universality establishes common ideas in all cultures and circumstances. In other words, the idea of solidarity or justice may vary in some specific respect, but all human beings have an idea of what solidarity and justice mean.
The point of view of the sophists and on duty
In Ancient Greece, sophists and Plato raised an interesting debate about ethical values. The sophists held to a relativistic view and argued that moral considerations were simply a human convention. What was morally desired for the Athenians might be meaningless to the Spartans.
On the other hand, Plato defended the ethical values found in the human soul as a universal idea and that through knowledge it was possible to know it and put it into practice. For Plato, when human beings identify the ethical values within, it means that they are in a position to lead a just and harmonious life. Ethical Values