The knowledge rigorous and especially science need a way to reach certain conclusions. And that path is the method . Method is understood as the procedure for analyzing an aspect of reality . Deductive Method
When it comes to thinking, we can do it in different ways: observing, collecting data , reflecting, analyzing from a subjective point of view , among others. However, if we want the knowledge to be valid and with guarantees of certainty, it is necessary to adopt a working method. The deductive method starts from general ideas that are accepted as satisfactory and, from this, a series of assumptions are deduced that are soon contrasted with the concrete facts of reality. The basic idea of this method is to take the first methodological step from the specific facts starting from the general to the particular.
The deductive method is also called hypothetical-deductive, since there is an idea that acts as a supposition and that means the existence of an explanatory hypothesis
The deductive method contrasts with the inductive one. The latter consists of a procedure based on the accumulation of data that are expanded and classified to obtain a general statement. Induction is considered an insufficient and poorly solid methodology for science, since a large number of data cannot reach a general idea. It would be like saying the sun will come out tomorrow because it has always come out until now. It is an inductive assessment that serves to have a very high degree of reliability for everyday life.
However, knowledge theorists prefer the deductive method, or better, hypothetical-deductive, as it offers more precision when doing science. We can consider that while the data do not contradict the statement of the deduction , it is valid, even if it is provisional.
A good example of deduction is Newton’s law of gravity: a general idea supported by concrete facts and which until today has not appeared other data that opposes it.
The deductive method is a way of thinking, a type of reasoning . The starting point is always a statement, a general idea that doesn’t come out of nowhere but is usually based on observation. From the initial statement, premises are extracted from which the appropriate conclusions are drawn. This mechanism is typical of logic (one of the branches of philosophy) and is applied in all sciences.