Peru Independence date causes process characters Main battles

Independence of Peru

Process that led to the birth of the Republic of Peru and its liberation from Spanish rule. Here we will tell you the Peru Independence date.

The Independence of Peru was a social, political and military process that led to the birth of the Republic of Peru and its liberation from Spanish rule, since the Conquest of America . Its culminating moments were the famous Battle of Junín and Battle Ayacucho , in 1824 .

This was a period of political and military conflicts that allowed the liberation of the Peruvian people from Spanish rule . Although its earliest antecedents date back to the beginning of the 19th century , several indigenous rebellions against colonial rule had already occurred throughout the 18th century , which were neutralized by the royalists.

The incursions of San Martín and Bolívar , with the subsequent victory in the battle of Ayacuchoformed a complex process of liberation from the last remaining viceroyalty in America under Spanish rule.

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Causes of Independence of Peru

We can highlight various antecedents that promoted the Independence of Peru:

  • The influence of liberating ideas, which began with the Independence of the United States , on most of the American colonies that were fighting to get rid of the Spanish monarchy. Likewise, the French Revolution was an important inspiration for the colonies in their fight against absolutism. 
  • Already in 1780, the indigenous leader Tupac Amaru II had attempted a rebellion against the Spanish government in Peru, and although this was severely beaten down, it was a fundamental precedent for the independence process of Peru.
  • Discontent over discrimination, abuse and injustices towards indigenous people and creoles on the part of the Spanish viceroy.
  • The existence of two social classes , the aristocracy and the plebs, where only the former obtained privileges.
  • The Spanish Empire of Carlos IV and Fernando VII had been notably weakened by several factors: the invasion and dominance of Napoleon Bonaparte in Europe, yellow fever, internal problems with the military forces and finally the loss of most of his fleet in the battle of Trafalgar . This strengthened the colonies in their process of independence.

Consequences of Independence of Peru

The Independence of Peru brought various political, economic and social consequences.

Political consequences

This event marked the end of a stage of harassment and injustice for all the patriots of America, since it consolidated the total emancipation of the American continent from the European monarchies , with Peru being the last territory left in the hands of the monarchical power .

In this way, this process includes the birth of the Republic of Peru , with the creation of a constituent congress in 1822 and a first constitution in 1823. Said republic came to have an executive and legislative power with liberal principles based on democracy.

Economic consequences

The main consequence that the nascent republic had to face was a serious economic crisis, due to the enormous military expenditures by the viceroyalty in the last years before independence.

This crisis brought with it a rise in taxes, looting, destruction of farms and a sharp decline in national and international trade.

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Social consequences

Among the most important consequences of this independence process, we can highlight the change of ideals of the patriots of Peru . Although the new policies were based on liberal principles, management continued to be in favor of the ruling elite classes and heirs, such as the military.

Process of the Independence of Peru

The stages and processes of the Independence of Peru were given as follows:

  1. Rebellions during the second half of the 18th century by the natives.
  2. Rebellions in the early nineteenth century by the Creoles.
  3. José de San Martín leaves Chile with 4,118 men in September 1820, arriving in the city of Pisco, then Huaura, until finally occupying Lima.
  4. After repeated government mismanagement by the Spanish viceroy Pezuela, José de la Serna (1770-1832), commanding officer of the royalist army in the viceroyalty of Peru , gave a coup to said authority and took command as captain general and senior political boss . On August 9, 1824, after the battle of Junín, he was appointed viceroy.
  5. Within the framework of so much social revolt, on July 28, 1821, the Act of Independence of Peru was drawn up and proclaimed by José de San Martín.
  6. On September 1, 1823, Simón Bolívar arrived from Ecuador and settled in the city of Trujillo, where he organized the army that later advanced towards Peru and fought in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho. 
  7. General Antonio José de Sucre , on December 9, 1824 sealed this process with victory in the battle of Ayacucho , obtaining the surrender of the royalists of Peru.
  8. Finally, in January 1826, the Spanish general Ramón Rodil surrendered in the last stronghold of Spanish domination that resisted on the continent.

Main battles of the Independence of Peru

Among the main confrontations during the Independence of Peru we can highlight the following:

Name Date Outcome
Battle of Huaqui June 20, 1811 Realistic victory.
Battle of Havana September 23, 1822 Victory of the independence army.
Battle of Moquegua January 21, 1823 Realistic victory.
Battle of Junín August 6, 1824 Victory of the independence army.
Battle of Ayacucho December 9, 1824 Victory of the independence army.

Characters of the Independence of Peru

The characters and protagonists of the process of Independence of Peru have been the following:

  • Túpac Amaru (1740 – 1781) : descendant of the Incas of Cuzco, he led a rebellion that spread over a large territory of Peru and Upper Peru, but was put down by the Spanish, who assassinated him. After his death, the living conditions for the Indians were hardened by the settlers, which further increased the desire for independence.
  • José de San Martín (1778 – 1850) : one of the most important leaders of Latin American independence, who installed the first Peruvian congress and liberated much of the territory from the royalist troops. He declared the Independence of Peru in the city of Lima in 1821.
  • Simón Bolívar (1783 – 1830) : most notable leader of Latin American independence. He was born in Caracas, Venezuela, and was the architect of independence from Panama to present-day Bolivia.
  • José de la Serna (1770 – 1831) : the last viceroy of Peru, he was forced to capitulate after the defeats of Junín and Ayacucho.
  • Thomas Cochrane (1775 – 1860) : British military man who helped with the Independence of Chile and Peru.
  • Antonio José de Sucre (1795 – 1830) : Venezuelan general who led the battle of Ayacucho, with which the capitulation of the Spanish and the definitive independence of Peru was obtained.
  • Joaquín de la Pezuela (1761 – 1830) : declared viceroy of Peru for defeating the independence army, but later relieved of his position by General San Martín.

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