The discursive strategies are the different linguistic tools used by an issuer or speaker to get the attention of a receiving public in the context in which the message is transmitted. In other words, these language resources are strategies that are used in order to cause a reaction.
Discursive strategies can vary according to the intention and purpose of the speaker in relation to what he wants to produce in the receiver. It can be said that the use of these language tools is subjective in nature and is subject to a certain extent to the content that the message carries.
On the other hand, discursive strategies can be of different types: descriptive, expository, narrative, argumentative, definition, to motivate, among others. Each of them fulfills a specific purpose, always aimed at awakening the interest and reaction of a specific audience.
Types of discursive strategies
The most common varieties of discursive strategies are described below:
This type of discursive strategy fulfills the purpose of describing or explaining the central element that makes up the message. The descriptions are given by the characteristics, properties or qualities that a person, object or thing has that is the subject of discussion for the speaker.
The expository discursive strategy consists of transmitting information on a given topic to a receiver who lacks or has little knowledge of it. In other words, the speaker is a specialist in a specific subject and therefore has the ability to exchange messages with solid content.
This strategy is about narrating or telling events in the way they happened or following a chronological order. Narrative discourse is used in literary texts such as novels and stories, but it is also frequent in the development of reports, news, reports and teaching methods.
This type of discursive strategies is used by the speaker to persuade, convince or generate a change of opinion and attitude in the receiver. On the other hand, the argumentative strategy pursues the restructuring or modification of ideas and can emotionally influence the public.
The definitional discourse is related to the way in which a word can be conceptualized or specified. To a certain extent, the discursive definition strategy is used as a didactic resource, because it seeks to teach about a specific topic and the components that comprise it.
The motivation strategy is focused on the action of the receiver with respect to a certain topic. The speaker seeks to persuade or convince about an idea, what he wants is for the audience to act based on what he thinks or feels. Motivational speech is one of the most used in the field of personal growth.
In simple words, the introductory discursive strategy is used by the speaker to let the receiver know that the message they are going to convey is important.
With this tool, what you want is to awaken the interest of the public, therefore the experts consider that between 30 seconds and 3 minutes is enough time to attract the audience.
The main objective of the entertainment speech is to distract and produce relaxation in the receiver. The speaker can use jokes, personal anecdotes, dynamics or games to create an atmosphere of recreation and trust. This discursive strategy is used by teachers in order to integrate students.
This variety of discursive strategy is frequently seen in awards events and also in press conferences where the individual must accept some type of recognition or, on the contrary, blame for a given situation. In general, acceptance speech is accompanied by an emotional charge.
Examples of discursive strategies
– Technology and isolation (argumentative discourse)
The 150 year revolution
Cooke and Wheatstone gave us the telegraph in 1829; Meucci gave us a first prototype of the telephone in 1854 and Graham Bell a definitive one in 1876. Zuse, for his part, gave us the first computer in 1936 and Tim Berners-Lee with his brilliant idea of the internet supplemented it in 1969 for communication purposes. Shortly after, in 1973, Martin Cooper released the cell phone. All the inventions previously exposed occurred in 147 years.
The reality before immediate communication at a distance
Before all this revolutionary brainstorming related to communications, staying informed and connected over long distances was only possible through letters and messengers.
Each population was encapsulated in its own reality, and found out what was happening in the surrounding communities thanks to the written press, visitors and the mail, and this very sporadically.
Yes, these inventions came to change the global reality, and life as we knew it revolutionized in a drastic way. All of human reality, in a way, began to mesh more deeply.
Do we communicate effectively?
Today, 191 years after the appearance of the telegraph, and taking into account the main objective for which it was created, it is worth asking: are we really communicated? It is undeniable that the question is a bit tricky, but it is relevant.
The era of disconnection
There are many studies that show that, despite all the advances described above and the main desire for which they were created, today we are experiencing an incredible disconnection.
We not only talk about the functional communicative aspect, we also talk about the emotional and empathic. Now we do not connect to listen and understand, but to speak and be understood.
Perhaps the worst thing is that the news of barbarism no longer affects the masses almost at all, but rather serves as entertainment, and does not reach a real impact, unless it occurs very closely.
Addiction to smartphones and other electronic devices
Millions of users of so-called smartphones have been seen using them for hours without realizing their immediate reality and forgetting about their duties, likewise with users of laptops and other gadgets. Yes, the technology created to bring us closer has isolated a considerable number of individuals.
Exclusion of the unconnected
Perhaps the strangest thing is that those who try to use these resources properly without allowing them to directly affect their lives, are viewed with surprise.
We have to wait to see what the future repairs. What is certain is that it is not possible to speak globally of effective communication through the use of technology that is available today, not in the way it was intended.
– Effort pays off (acceptance speech)
First of all, thanks to the jury and the organizers of the National Journalism Prize for taking my work into account. This, for me, more than a job, more than a trade, is my reason for life. I have found in journalistic exercise the refuge and happiness that no other activity has been able to give me.
Today, with 53 years of life and 35 years of experience, this award comes to give an indescribable sweetness to my soul. However, it is not the end, for me it is a new beginning. Nor is it a trophy to stare at it until death, no, it is a light that I appreciate and that I will remember as I continue the walk of life until I have to finish the career that has been assigned to me in the last breath.
To everyone here, thank you for being there. To the Mexican population that has so supported my performance on the streets of this beautiful and thriving country, infinite thanks. I’m still on the road, as always, serving everyone. Have a happy day.