Main properties of the text with examples in detail

Properties of Text

The main properties of the text  are coherence, cohesion and adequacy. The text is a structured linguistic unit with a communicative intention determined in a specific context. The text is made up of a series of sentences structured in paragraphs that complete a single meaning and that have grammatical and semantic relationships with each other. Main properties of the text with examples

According to its objective, there are different types of texts among which are mentioned:

-Narrative texts.

-Descriptive texts.

-Expository texts.

– Argumentative texts.

They can also be classified according to their form in:






But this classification is not exclusive. It is normal to find descriptive or argumentative sequences in narrative texts, for example.

However, there will always be a dominant textual sequence. A text can vary in its length, but this is usually linked to its objective. Main properties of the text with examples

The support on which a text is embodied is usually some type of paper, but creativity and the need for texts to be printed on fabrics, metals, plastics, stones, etc.

What are the properties of a text?

1- Coherence

Consistency is a property related to the organization of information so that the sender fulfills his communication objective in the receiver in a clear and precise way.

For this reason, it is also related to the knowledge shared between the sender and the receiver. It is a semantic relationship.

Consistency determines the amount of information a text contains as well as the order in which it is distributed.

For a text to be coherent, it must include a global theme that is detailed or deepened in each of the paragraphs that compose it. This requires a special effort to select and organize the data in the text. Concept maps help in this task.

The information in a text must meet certain rules to be consistent:


The topic is presented several times and in different ways (with synonyms), throughout the text.


Each point covered must be related to the central theme of the text.

Thematic progression

As the text progresses, new and relevant information on the topic is added.

No contradiction

It is assumed that there is always a thesis or premise that the issuer defends, therefore it is necessary for the data to support that thesis, not to contradict it.

Consistency also requires a type of structure:


That follows the deductive method from the statement of the thesis to its full development.


In this structure the inductive method is applied and therefore, the conclusion reveals the fundamental thesis of the text.

Consistency example

A text that does not present coherence could be something like this:

“From 2016. I was fired but it helped me in the end I bought the red one, which was also small. Synchronous of Italy with four doors ”.

Can you guess what the text is trying to tell us? Most likely not, as it lacks consistency. However, if we give it to him it would look like this:

“This car is a 2016 model. It is small and red, it has 4 doors and it is synchronous. They imported it from Italy. When I was fired, I was able to buy it thanks to the severance pay ”.

In this case it becomes clearer what the individual in the text is trying to explain.

2- Cohesion

Cohesion allows the relationship between the paragraphs that make up the text to be correct and logical. That relationship is grammatical. Main properties of the text with examples

There are several resources or mechanisms to achieve this cohesion:

Mechanism of recurrence or repetition

This mechanism consists of repeating words, phrases or sentences. For example:

“Rosa is playing with her doll. It is the doll that her aunt gave her ”.

Substitution mechanism

In this case, one term takes the place of another

It can occur:

  • As a lexical substitution by using synonyms or equivalent expressions.
  • By using pronouns to avoid repetition of the noun or referent.
  • Through the use of pointing adverbs or deictics.

An example could be a sentence like the one below:

“Juana and Robert made a cake. She ate, but he did not arrive in time to receive his share. “


It is a resource that allows you to suppress linguistic elements that are understood thanks to the context.

An example of this resource could be seen in this sentence:

“Today the first-year boys will play; tomorrow, the second “.

Discursive or textual markers

They are linguistic elements that help the receiver to interpret the meaning of the message. They logically connect the sequences of the text. In this case, they appear:

Cohesion example

Let’s see how the following text where cohesion is not optimized can be improved:

“Noelia usually travels and I do too. I really like to travel and so does she. We have visited Rome, we have visited Paris, we have also visited Barcelona and other cities that we have also been to ”.

To have cohesion, it could be formulated as follows:

“Noelia and I usually travel because we like it a lot. We have visited Rome, Paris, Barcelona and other cities more ”.

3- Adequacy

It is an extratextual property that consists of adapting the text to its purpose.

A text is adequate in terms of:


It refers to the typeface used and the arrangement of the text elements.


It refers to whether the text is informative, descriptive, etc.


It refers to the relationship between the sender and the receiver.


It attends to the conventions of each genre to fulfill the purpose of the text.

Suitability example

” Photosynthesis is the metabolic procedure in which plants generate their food substrate. It would be an endothermic chemical process that uses sunlight to transform carbon dioxide into sugars that provide energy to the cell of the prokaryotic being. Did you understand it class? “.

If the paper is being given to an advanced biology class, the answer will be entirely adequate, but if your listeners are school-aged children, probably none of them have understood anything and therefore the educational purpose of the text is not fulfilled. Main properties of the text with examples

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