Paradigmatic relationship recognized as one of the constructive principles in the organization of vocabulary of all languages
Hyponymy is a relationship that is established between a more specific word and a more general word. That is, a hyponym designates that particular term that can be used to refer to the reality named by a more general term. Hyponyms, then, are words whose meaning is more restricted than that of another word, which is interpreted as a generic term. In this sense, it has an inverse relationship to hyperonmia: the most specific term (hyponym) includes the most general ( hyperonym ).
Words that fall into the category designated by the hypernym are called hyponyms . Its meaning is more specific than that of the hypernym. However, everything that is designated by a hyponym is also designated by a hyperonym. The same does not happen vice versa. For example, all flowers (hyponym) are vegetables (hyperonym). But not all vegetables are flowers.
Two hyponyms are said to be co-eponyms when they respond to the same hyperonym.
For example, sparrow, churrinche, añambé, chorlos are bird hyponyms; weeping willow, ceibo, anacahuita, crown are tree hyponyms.
We must remember that the teaching of this point is fundamental for the enrichment of the vocabulary of the students.
The relations of hyperonimia and hyponymy are the basis of the definitions presented by dictionaries , since a word is defined by another one of more extensive content, with individualizing notes, particular to each meaning.
examples of hyponyms:
1.- Hyponyms of the term “Dog” .- In the dog competition, the first place was won by a doberman, a rottweiler, a German shepherd and a French poodle. French poodle, rottweiler, doberman and German shepherd are dog hyponyms, since these are within the meaning of the word dog that covers everyone.
2.- Home hyponyms.- When we entered the house, we were greeted in the living room, the lady went to the kitchen for a snack and at night they lent me a room to sleep. The kitchen, the room and the living room are home hyponyms, since these words are within the extension of the meaning of the word home.
3.- Shoe shop hyponyms.- I went to the shoe store for footwear, but I didn’t decide if I bought some boots, some shoes or some tennis shoes, however my girlfriend bought some slippers that she liked. Tennis, shoes, shoes and boots , they are Hieronymites of shoe shop, since this word (shoe store), covers all the extension of meaning of the other terms.
4.- Forest hyponyms.- When we went to the forest, we went through a dense grove near a stream, in the trees there were several birds and I saw a squirrel in a bush. Trees, shrubs, creek, squirrels, birds, are hyponyms of the word forest, since these are encompassed in the meaning of this term.
5.- Tree hyponyms.- In the nursery there were several species of trees, there I saw pines, birches and ash trees. Birches, pines, and ash trees, are Tree Hyponyms, a word that encompasses the extensive meaning of each of these.
6.- Computer hyponyms.- When I took my computer to repair, the DVD ROM, the floppy disk, and the RAM memory were changed. The words RAM, DVD-ROM and Floppy disk are covered in the meaning by a whole, which It is the computer Hyperonym.
7.- Hypony of music.- When I was young, I went to the opera, there I listened to a Mozart concert and in the end they played a small sonata for violin and orchestra, which stayed in my mind for weeks. The words Violin, orchestra, designate terms that are objects, which are within the meaning of the term music, as well as the words, concert and sonata.
8.- Hypony of Europe.- I traveled to Europe, visited Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Greece. In this case, Spain, Greece, Italy, Germany and France are included in the meaning of the word Europe, therefore they are Hyponyms of this term.
9.- Hyponyms to study.- I started studying to pass the university entrance exam, so I began to read and transcribe all the books I could, of the subjects in which I was worse, to learn in this way Everything you need to pass the exam. Reading, transcribing, and learning, are Hyponyms to study, since the meaning of studying encompasses these terms.
10.- Animal hyponyms.- When we went to the museum, the professor explained some differences between mammals, weights, reptiles and arthropods. In the case of arthropods, weights, reptiles and mammals, these words are found within the meaning of the term animal, which encompasses all of them, therefore these words, are hyponyms of the hyperonym “animal.”