Hyponym definition and examples


Hyponymy / Cohyponym describes the mutual relationship between two lexemes, which can be hierarchically arranged through their logical-semantic relationship. The hyponym (sub-term) contains all the meaning components of the Cohyponym (generic term), so that the logical sub-or super-ordination results from the semantic relationship of the two expressions. in this article, we will elaborate Hyponym definition

Origin of Hyponymy

The terms Cohyponym and hyponymy come from Greek. “Hyper” translates as “over”, while “Hypo” translates as “below (half)”. “Onyma” can be translated as “name” in both cases. In English, one speaks of super ordination when one speaks of hyponymy and of subordination when one speaks of Cohyponym.

In linguistics and lexicography, Hyponyms are a term used to refer to a specific member of a broader class. For example, chamomile and rose are hyponyms of a flower. Also called subtype or sub-term. Hyponymic adjective. The term is pronounced as ” HI-in-nim” (with an emphasis on the first syllable), and its etymology is from the Greek “below” plus “name”.

Words that are hyponyms of the same broader term (i.e., Cohyponym ) are called co-hyponyms. The semantic relationship between each of the more specific words (such as chamomile and rose ) and the broader term ( flower ) is called hyponymy or inclusion.

Hyponymy isn’t limited to nouns. The verb see, for example, has several hyponyms – a glimpse, gaze, gaze, gaze, and so on. In Language: Its Structure and Uses, Edward Finnegan points out that although “hyponymy occurs in all languages, the concepts that words have in hyponymic relationships vary from one language to another.”

With regard to its meaning, the Cohyponym is contained in that of the hyponym, which itself belongs to the set of denotations of the Cohyponym.


Cohyponym → hyponym

Vegetable → tomato

Legumes → pea

Woman → teacher

Another example of a Cohyponym -hyponymy relation, which cannot simply be replaced with the terms “upper” and “subcategory”, can be found in compound words. A compound expression, as a lexeme, can have a meaning that is not simply identical to the composition of its components. It may be that a relationship is recognizable in a certain way, especially with regard to the origin of the fixed meaning, but the compound is not a “part of the concept” of its core.


Cohyponym → hyponymy

Head → fool

Eye → corn

Hyponymy with its definition and examples and observations

“Hyponymy is a less familiar term for most people than synonymy or antonymy, but it refers to a much more important semantic relationship. He describes what happens when we say “X is a variety of Y” – a daffodil is a variety of a flower, or simply a daffodil is a flower. “

Hyponyms of red

We are looking at words that have a similar meaning because they belong to the same domain segment. For example, the words pink, scarlet, orange, hot pink, and pumpkin … increasingly pronounced, specific terms for flowers that occur from red … These words have many of the semantic properties of the word red. Since these words form a subclass of the word red, they are referred to as hyponyms for red. Similarly, maple, birch, and pine are hyponyms of a tree … Hyponyms are more specific words that form a subclass of the more general word “.


Rose is a sub-term for flowers.

The flower is the generic term.

Knife, fork, and spoon are hyponyms. They all belong to the generic term “cutlery”.

Star, blackbird, and titmouse are hyponyms because they have a common generic term

Math, German, physics, and geography are hyponyms because they have the common generic term

Peter, Olaf, Sven, and Maria are hyponyms because they have the common generic term

Berlin, Moscow, Rome, Madrid are hyponyms because they have the common generic term

Hyponymy with its definition and examples

1.- Hyponyms of the term “Dog” .- In the dog competition, first place was won by a Doberman, a rottweiler, a German shepherd, and a French poodle. French poodle, rottweiler, Doberman, and German shepherd are dog hyponyms since these are within the meaning of the word dog that covers everyone.

2.- Home hyponyms.- When we entered the house, we were greeted in the living room, the lady went to the kitchen for a snack and at night they lent me a room to sleep. The kitchen, the room, and the living room are home hyponyms since these words are within the extension of the meaning of the word home.

Hyponymy with its definition and examples

3.- Shoe shop hyponyms.- I went to the shoe store for footwear, but I didn’t decide if I bought some boots, some shoes or some tennis shoes, however, my girlfriend bought some slippers that she liked. Tennis, shoes, shoes and boots, they are Hieronymites of the shoe shop, since this word (shoe store), covers all the extension of the meaning of the other terms.

4.- Forest hyponyms.- When we went to the forest, we went through a dense grove near a stream, in the trees there were several birds and I saw a squirrel in a bush. Trees, shrubs, creek, squirrels, birds, are hyponyms of the word forest since these are encompassed in the meaning of this term.

5.- Tree hyponyms.- In the nursery there were several species of trees, there I saw pines, birches, and ash trees. Birches, pines, and ash trees, are Tree Hyponyms, a word that encompasses the extensive meaning of each of these.

6.- Computer hyponyms.- When I took my computer to repair, the DVD ROM, the floppy disk, and the RAM memory were changed. The words RAM, DVD-ROM, and Floppy disk are covered in the meaning by a whole, which is the computer Cohyponym. Hyponymy with its definition and examples

7.- Hyponymy of music.- When I was young, I went to the opera, there I listened to a Mozart concert and in the end, they played a small sonata for violin and orchestra, which stayed in my mind for weeks. The words Violin, orchestra, designate terms that are objects, which are within the meaning of the term music, as well as the words, concert,o, and sonata.

8.- hyponyms of Europe.- I traveled to Europe, visited Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and Greece. In this case, Spain, Greece, Italy, Germany, and France are included in the meaning of the word Europe, therefore they are Hyponyms of this term.

9.- Hyponyms to study.- I started studying to pass the university entrance exam, so I began to read and transcribe all the books I could, of the subjects in which I was worse, to learn in this way Everything you need to pass the exam. Reading, transcribing, and learning, are Hyponyms to study since the meaning of studying encompasses these terms.

10.- Animal hyponyms.- When we went to the museum, the professor explained some differences between mammals, weights, reptiles, and arthropods. In the case of arthropods, weights, reptiles, and mammals, these words are found within the meaning of the term animal, which encompasses all of them, therefore these words, are hyponyms of the cohyponym “animal.”

Hyponymy test 

” Hyponymy includes specific instantiation of a more general concept, such as occurs between horse and animal or cinnabar and red or buy and receive. In each case, one word provides a more specific type of concept than the other is displayed. The more specific a word is called a hyponym, and the more a common word is superior, which can also be called Cohyponym or Cohyponym … Where words classified according to this relation are nouns, you can test for hyponymy by swapping X and Y in the “X is a variation of Y” frame and checking if the result makes sense. So we have “(A) horse is a kind of animal,” but not “(An) an animal is a kind of horse,” and so on. “

“In general, there are several hyponyms for each subordinate. For example, boar and piglet are also hyponyms of the superior pig, since the meaning of each of the three words “ pig”, “boar” and “ piglet” ‘contain’ the meaning of the word pig (Note that when defining the word as. Sow, hog, or piglet, the parent word pig is often used as part of the definition: “a pig is an adult female pig… ‘) So, it is not surprising that hyponymy is sometimes called inclusion. The superior is the included word, and the hyponym is inclusive “.

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