Independence of Chile
Process that allowed Chile to be recognized as an independent republic from the Spanish Empire. Here we will provide you the information about How did Chile gain independence?
The process that consolidated Chile as an independent republic from the Spanish Empire is known as Independence of Chile .
This period is included between September 18, 1810 , from the First National Board of Government, until the abdication of Bernardo O’Higgins on January 28, 1823 .
During this independence process there were great battles between patriots, those supporters of the Independence of Chile, and the royalist army , who defended the Spanish Crown.
Although the process ended with the resignation of Bernardo O’Higgins on January 28, 1823, who made it to avoid a civil war, the Independence of Chile was established on February 12, 1818 .
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Causes of the Independence of Chile
There were both internal and external causes that led to the independence of this nation.
Among the world events that prompted this independence process, the following stand out:
- Ideals of the French Revolution that supported nationalism, the republic and democracy, in addition to the ideas of freedom and law.
- Influence of the Independence of the United States along with their ideas of freedom.
- Opposition to the Napoleonic invasion by the Spanish.
- The defense of Buenos Aires against the English invasions , which inspired the Chilean region to fight against the European Empire.
Among the internal events that drove this independence process, the following stand out:
- The bad government of Francisco Antonio García Carrasco .
- The lack of commercial freedom that impoverished the country more and more and turned it into a factory in Spain.
- The fight for positions within the government, where discrimination in favor of the Spanish reigned and the Creoles wanted to have more participation.
Political , social and economic consequences of this independence process have been distinguished .
- Opposition of the Chilean oligarchy towards O’Higgins, despite his attempts to give him greater political power.
- Resignation and exile of the Chilean hero in 1823.
- Internal political division between the patriot army and the oligarchy.
- Despite achieving independence, the internal colonial social structure remained the same for a long time .
- The peasants became poorer , a fact that increased crime considerably.
- The Chilean aristocracy remained in power .
- Due to the political chaos, the country’s economic crisis increased .
- There were bad harvests and financial disorder, which perpetuated anarchy.
- Hunger and poverty increased, and large agricultural and cattle ranches were destroyed.
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Stages of the Independence of Chile
The entire process of Independence of Chile developed in a long war between monarchists, royalists and patriots. This can be divided into 3 stages: Old Homeland, Spanish Reconquest and New Homeland .
The Old Homeland corresponds to the first stage of the Independence of Chile, which ranges from the First National Government Board, in 1810, to the Battle of Rancagua in 1814 , after which the Reconquest stage begins. .
This period was characterized by various battles against the royalist army, defender of the Spanish Empire, with the aim of defining Chile as an independent republic.
Although this stage did not prosper due to the Spanish Reconquest in 1814, it was a great beginning so that later, during the New Homeland, the Independence of Chile was finally consolidated.
This stage began a new era in Chile characterized by resistance to the colonial order and increased desire for emancipation when Fernando VII returned to power.
It should be noted that the Spanish Reconquest meant a setback in the cause of Chilean independence, since the freedoms established in the Constitution were suppressed.
The New Homeland begins on February 12, 1817 when the patriots regain power with their victory, in the battle of Chacabuco. Likewise, it ends on January 28, 1823 with the resignation of O’Higgins .
This stage was characterized by being the one that definitively led to the consolidation of Chile as an independent republic and state .
After this stage, already consolidated the Independence of Chile, the stage of political organization of the country began.
Most important battles of the Independence of Chile
The most important battles and combats that occurred in pursuit of the Independence of Chile are exposed below.
Note : underlined belligerents correspond to the victory of each battle.
|Striped Court Combat||March 29, 1814||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Combat of the 3 Acequias||August 26, 1814||Carrerinos vs. O’Higginists|
|Battle of Rancagua||October 1-2, 1814||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of Chacabuco||February 12, 1817||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of Cerro Gavilán||May 5, 1817||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Talcahuano Assault||December 5 and 6, 1817||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of Striped Field||March 19, 1818||Patriots vs. Realistic|
|Battle of Maipú||April 5, 1818||Patriots vs. Realistic|