The Huns were a group of nomadic tribes who, with some good leaders, managed to unify with each other and keep the same goal in mind. What did the Huns look like?
Later, the Huns managed to increase their power in such a way that they began a stage of expansion and also looting in lands inhabited by Celtic peoples and even dominated by the Romans . Let’s see more details about the Hungarian empire and its characteristics.
Location and Origin of the Huns
It is believed that they were descendants of the Mongols , but there is also another theory that the Huns came from the Turks , which is more likely considering that the Huns were Eurasian tribes that appeared in history in the fourth century. They were nomadic peoples who became skilled as horsemen and archers, which gave them an advantage in warfare.
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Political organization of the Huns
The Huns, although they achieved a lot in a political and territorial sense, were not totally united in the political sphere to have achieved so much, since it was not an empire as such, but rather a set of peoples or tribes.
But later, in the year 420, a leader known as Octar rises up among the Huns, who was in charge of unifying all these tribes and commanding them with great authority. Later, his brother Rua succeeded him as leader of this Hungarian confederation, also providing them with a goal as a whole. The objective was to attack the western Roman Empire with the Roman general Aetius as an ally. Later, he also focused on attacking the Eastern Roman Empire, but failed to live to complete his goal. This is how Attila and Bleda, his two nephews, came to the power of the Huns, who initiated an era where the leadership of the Huns was led by two kings . What did the Huns look like?
In addition, the Hun kings had men with military authority who were in charge of leading groups of archers, which was the specialty of the Huns in war.
Huns social organization
The Huns had a very common social organization, distributed as follows:
- King : The king was the absolute ruler over the people, especially after Attila started ruling the Huns. This was highly respected by the entire empire, more than a simple tribal leader, he was treated as a king with absolute authority.
- Nobility : this social class was made up of the king’s family, which enjoyed many privileges in Hungarian society, and possessed many wealth and land.
- Aristocracy : this was the social group that had privileges and rights within Hungarian society, such as choosing what part of the spoils they would keep after the king and also owning different lands and livestock. In addition, they also had many possessions and riches, they dressed in gold ornaments and very fine clothes.
- Slaves : these represented the lowest social class that did not have any rights or privileges in society, but rather worked for the aristocrats and for the king and his family in the care of their lands and their livestock.
Hun religion What did the Huns look like?
The religion of the Huns was not well known, but it is believed that they worshiped the horse and considered it a sacred animal within their culture. It is also thought that they were atheists and did not worship any god or divinity, but that they did have customs mixed with religion.
They believed that there was no life after death, but that only the present life existed. However, the Huns had within their culture as species of shamans and sorcerers who were in charge of guessing the future, through the use of animal bones and their remains .
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What did the Huns look like
The Huns were nomads and lived in temporary huts, yet they still knew the ownership of the land. Due to its nomadic condition, livestock and hunting had a more important role in its economy than agriculture . The deficiencies in their diet were satisfied through trade and looting in enemy territory. The weapons they used in warfare were the straight sword, the spear, the lasso (rope with which they captured their enemies) and the bow , which they used to shoot from the horse . The use of the stirrup contributed to this, which they took from the Chinese and later introduced into Persia and Europe. It is worth mentioning the production of cauldrons, which demonstrate a cultural continuity with the cauldrons of the Xiongnu. These cauldrons are found throughout the entire Eurasian steppe. What did the Huns look like?
At the very moment of their birth the cheeks of their infant children are deeply marked by an iron, in order that the usual vigor of their hair, instead of growing at the proper season, may be withered by the wrinkled scars; and accordingly they grow up without beards, and consequently without any beauty, like eunuchs, though they all have closely knit and strong limbs and plump necks; they are of great size, and bow-legged, so that you might fancy them two-legged beasts, or the stout figures which are hewn out in a rude manner with an axe on the posts at the end of bridges.
They are certainly in the shape of men, however uncouth, but are sohardy that they neither require fire nor well-flavored food, but live on the roots of such herbs as they get in the fields, or on the half-raw flesh of any animal, which they merely warm rapidly by placing in between their own thighs and the back of their horses.
They wear linen clothes, or else garments made of the skins of field-mice; nor do they wear a different dress out of doors from that which they wear at home; but after a tunic is once put round their necks, however much it becomes worn, it is never taken off or changed till, from long decay, it becomes actually so ragged as to fall to pieces.
They cover their heads with round caps, and their shaggy legs with the skins of kids; their shoes are not made on any lasts, but are so unshapely as to hinder them from walking with a free gait. And for this reason they are not well suited to infantry battles, but are nearly always on horseback, their horses being ill-shaped, but hardy; and sometimes they even sit upon them like women if they want to do anything more conveniently. There is not a person in the whole nation who cannot remain on his horse day and night. On horseback they buy and sell, they take their meat and drink, and there they recline on the narrow neck of their steed, and yield to sleep so deep as to indulge in every variety of dream. What did the Huns look like?
And when any deliberation is to take place on any weighty matter, they all hold their common council on horseback. They are not under the authority of a king, but are contented with the irregular government of their nobles, and under their lead they force their way through all obstacles.