Battle of Rancagua
Warlike confrontation within the framework of the Independence of Chile. Here we will make you informed about the battle of Rancagua.
|Date||October 1 and 2, 1814.|
|Place||South of Chile.|
|Belligerents||Realistic army vs. Patriot army.|
|Outcome||Realistic army victory.|
The battle or disaster of Rancagua was a warlike confrontation that took place within the framework of the Independence of Chile .
This occurred between October 1 and 2, 1814, in the south of that country, when the royalist troops attacked and defeated the patriot army, allowing the Spanish reconquest.
In this battle the following sides faced:
- Royalist Army : under the command of Mariano Osorio, who sought to reconquer all of Chilean territory.
- Patriot Army : under the command of José Miguel Carrera and Bernardo O’Higgins, who defended the independence of Chilean territory and the total emancipation of the Spanish.
This armed conflict took place in the city of Rancagua , a town located about 90 km south of Santiago de Chile, which at the time had only about 2,500 inhabitants.
After the withdrawal of the patriots, the royalist army looted and burned the city of Rancagua, generating terrible damage, rapes and deaths . A part of the patriot army, which consisted of about 3,000 Chileans, managed to escape through the Andes to the city of Mendoza, while another group fled to the capital to report defeat.
This defeat ended with the stage of Patria Vieja in Chile and began the stage of the Spanish Reconquest, which would last until the Battle of Chacabuco in 1817, within the framework of the battles for independence.
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Causes and consequences of the battle of Rancagua
The main causes of the Battle of Rancagua were the following:
- The declaration of Chilean independence from Spain in September 1810 , although the royalist troops remained in the territory.
- The breach and rejection of the Treaty of Lircay , signed on May 5, 1814 between patriots and royalists, where loyalty to the Spanish Crown and the Spanish king was reaffirmed, in exchange for a territorial division and respect between both sides. This treaty was considered a truce to reorganize both armies.
- The troops sent by the crown and Viceroy Abascal, to stop the Chilean army and regain power in the area, with better weapons, supplies and experienced soldiers.
The main consequences of the Battle of Rancagua were the following:
- The end of the period called Old Homeland and the beginning of the Spanish Reconquest, the Spanish Crown regaining control over the entire Chilean territory.
- The independence army was completely disorganized , taking 4 years to rearm the troops and take control of its territory to finally get rid of the Spanish Crown, in 1817.
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Characters from the battle of Rancagua
The most outstanding characters of the Battle of Rancagua were the following:
- Mariano Osorio Pardo (1777-1819) : poet, governor and Spanish soldier, commander of the royalist forces in the battle of Rancagua and Cancha Rayada.
- Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme (1778-1842) : Chilean politician and military man, considered one of the fathers of the Chilean homeland, who was commander of the patriotic army in the process of the Independence of Chile.
- José Miguel de la Carrera y Verdugo (1785-1821) : Chilean military and politician, considered one of the fathers of the Chilean homeland, commander of the patriotic forces in the process of independence.
- José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa (1743-1821) : Spanish military and politician, field marshal and viceroy of Peru, belonging to the nobility. He was the one who sent the troops of the Spanish Crown to stop the patriots and defeat them in Rancagua.