Who won the battle of Maipu
|Date||April 5, 1818.|
|Place||Cerrillos del Maipo, Chile.|
|Belligerents||Liberation Army Vs. Realistas.|
|Outcome||Victory of the liberating army.|
The Battle of Maipu was a confrontation for the Independence of Chile , which occurred on April 5, 1818 in Cerrillos del Maipo , near Santiago de Chile.
In this battle the united liberating army , Chile and Argentina under the command of General José de San Martín , and the royalist army of Chile, representing the Spanish Empire , faced each other .
As the victory was for the patriots of the liberating army, the Battle of Maipu was a decisive step to achieve the Independence of Chile , since it meant the definitive eradication of the Spanish Empire from this territory. In turn, it allowed San Martín to continue towards Upper Peru, where the largest focus of royalist troops was located.
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Causes and consequences
Among the main causes of the Battle of Maipu we can highlight the following:
- After the motivating Chilean victory in the Battle of Chacabuco , on February 12, 1817, the liberating army began an intense military campaign, in order to achieve total independence from the Spanish Empire.
- After its defeat in the battle of Chacabuco, the royalist army made a withdrawal due to reorganization. One part went to Valparaíso, to reach Upper Peru, and another part to the south of Chile, which facilitated the strengthening of the liberating army .
- The defeat of the patriot army, in Cancha Rayada on March 19, 1818, was a decisive factor for the strategy, organization and confidence of the liberating army, which achieved victory in the battle of Maipú.
The main consequences of the Battle of Maipu were the following:
- This battle was decisive for the Independence of Chile and turned out to be the precursor of future victories for the patriots; not only for Chileans, but also for the process of independence from the other Spanish-American colonies.
- The victory allowed the liberating army to continue towards the viceroyalty of Peru , together with Simón Bolívar , in order to liberate that territory from the largest focus of royalist troops.
- This battle allowed the liberating army to advance north and obtain victory in the Battle of Boyacá and the Battle of Ayacucho .
- Thanks to this victory, control and access to the Pacific Ocean remained in the hands of the patriots .
- The battle of Maipú made it clear to the Spanish authorities and the royalist army that the emancipation of America was inevitable , which served to convince some royalist generals to join the independence movement.
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Among the protagonists of the Battle of Maipu we can highlight the following:
- General José de San Martín (1778 – 1850): politician and commander-in-chief of the United Liberation Army of Chile. His participation was decisive in the liberation campaign, which is why the army of this country recognizes him as “captain general.”
- Bernardo O’Higgins (1778 – 1842): politician and commander of the reinforcement division, who was seriously injured in Cancha Rayada a few days before this confrontation. His participation was very important during the Chilean emancipation and he is considered the father of this country.
- Manuel Blanco Encalada (1790 – 1876): politician, diplomat and commander of the first group of artillery in Chile, belonging to the United Liberation Army.
- Mariano Osorio (1777 – 1819): military man, poet and governor of the Spanish Crown. He was general in chief and commander of the royalist army. Next to him was Brigadier José Ordónez (1789 – 1819) , second chief and commander of the first brigade of that army.