The production and reception of speech
The production and reception of speech is a very important and interesting phenomenon. It is the fundamental thing to understand the philosophy of sound.
Usually, as with almost all the acts we do on a daily basis, we are not aware of how enormously complex the speech process is (which It also includes listening and understanding the message). In this section we are going to try to make us a little more aware of all this complexity, understanding each one of the phases of said process.In the previous topic we already saw the essentials of the communication process. Now let’s dig a little deeper into it.
We start from the fact that speech is a psychic phenomenon (which develops within the brain) and at the same time a physiological act (different organs of our body are move directed by the brain), whose realization creates phenomena of physical order (transmission of acoustic waves). We will see it first in a scheme:
- The brain creates the message and sends nerve impulses that originate the joint of sounds or, in other words, the brain’s performance converts the thinking in linguistic units (coding) and, at the same time, sends nerve impulses to different organs that will be responsible for production
2 Responding to brain stimuli, the lungs will begin to expel air (in a coordinated manner with breathing), which will be modified in different points on its way to expulsion through the mouth: vocal cords, glottis,tongue, lips … involved in this process.
3 Sound transmission, in the form of sound waves through the air (phenomenon physical)
4 The sound waves are collected by the auditory pavilion (the ear) and different ossicles, organs and nerves will take it to the brain.
5 Again the brain (the receiver’s one this time) will transform the sounds
received in linguistic units (phonemes, words, sentences …) and these, at them time, in own thought (decoding). We see that the beginning and the end of the process are psychic phenomena realized in the brain. Phases II and IV are physiological, performed by different muscles and organs of the body. The central phase is a physical phenomenon and responds to the physical properties of sound transmission In this topic we are going to focus mainly on phase II, the production of sound by the sounding device, although, in passing, we will also see how the hearing aid works.
Sound production: the sounding device
In the following drawing, the different organs and parts of the sounding apparatus are specified. In Class will explain the functions of each. Watch for that explanation and complete the list that comes after the drawing, specifying those functions from which we will talk in class
Sound reception: the hearing aid
Sort the different parts of the hearing aid according to the order in which each one acts in the audition process, and summarizes the function of each in a single sentence: one.