Language and Linguistics

The communication and their characteristics

The communication with explanation

Communication

Communication is the action of exchanging information , either between two or more people, with the purpose of transmitting and receiving information (written, emotional, etc.). The person (or people) who sends the information is the sender, and the person who received it from the recipient. The means by which the message is transmitted is the channel.

But this relatively simple scheme does not cover all the complexity of the process, because in reality there are many types of communication, not just one . In this article we will see its characteristics and what it means to know how to master them well.

The main communication skills

Being a good communicator is key to personal relationships , in the success of your professional career and, in addition, the emotional health of people. In other words, being a competent communicator is necessary to perform successfully in this life.

And if something characterizes people who are happier is that they are competent communicators, which helps them to face the situations of their daily lives in the most satisfactory way . For example, when solving a discussion with your partner or when presenting your application for a job interview. Luckily, communication skills can be learned. 

But … what are these communication skills? Good communicators are characterized by mastering these skills:

  • Active listening
  • Empathy
  • Emotional validation
  • Nonverbal language
  • Conflict resolution
  • Negotiation
  • Verbal language
  • Read
  • to write
  • Respect
  • Persuasion ability
  • Credibility

Types of communication

As we have seen, beyond the basic scheme of the process of transmission of a message there are different types of communication, since the transmitters can be different and the information that is sent and the channel through which it also circulates. Below you can find the classification of the varied forms of communication, according to various criteria:

Verbal and non-verbal communication

Two types of communication that are often talked about are verbal and nonverbal communication . This dichotomous classification refers to whether the message is verbalized or not.

1. Verbal communication

Verbal communication is characterized by the use of words in the interaction between the sender and the receiver. There are two types, because words or language can be expressed in a spoken or written way:

  • Oral communication : it is done through oral signs or spoken words. Shouting, crying or laughing are also oral communication.
  • Written communication : it is done through written codes. Hieroglyphs, alphabets or logos also belong to this type of communication.

Although verbal communication is the most explicit and obvious, given that it is regulated by a series of rules that take several years to learn and that allow us to convey relatively clear and often even concise units of meaning, we must bear in mind that after it There is also another as or more important than this which, in addition, can modify the meaning of the former. It is about nonverbal communication, which we will see next.

2. Nonverbal communication

This type of language is carried out without the use of words and, in many cases unconsciously. Body movements, postures, gaze, the way of sitting or walking are some examples.

In most cases, both the issuance of messages and the interpretation of these are processes performed automatically, even involuntarily. This is because this type of communication is the one that has had more importance throughout our evolutionary history, in stages of evolution in which the use of words did not yet exist.

However, the messages linked to nonverbal communication are relatively ambiguous and difficult to interpret, since unlike the previous type, it is not governed by consensual norms and explicitly learned.

According to the number of participants

The type of communication may vary depending on the people participating in the communicative interaction.

3. Individual

In this type of communication only one sender and one receiver interact, that is, the communication is produced from individual to individual. It is a framework of interactions characterized by privacy and the impossibility of pretending to impact an audience or a third person who observes.

4. Collective

This type of communication occurs when there are more than two people who exchange messages . In these cases, the situation may arise that although one person addresses the other in his speech, it is intended to cause an effect not on him, but on the rest of the people.

5. Intrapersonal

This type of communication occurs when a person communicates with himself. For example, when someone has to make a decision and reasons the solutions. It is discussed whether communication can really be considered.

6. Interindividual

Inter individual communication occurs when two people communicate, either verbally or nonverbally, basically expressing feelings .

7. Intragrupal

This type of communication occurs when two or more members communicate a group or colectiv or .

8. Intergroup

Intergroup communication refers to the communication that exists between groups. For example, between the interpreters and a group of spectators.

9. Mass communication

The mass or mass communication refers to the interaction between a single sender and a massive or audience receiver to . The recipient must be: a large group of people, be heterogeneous and be anonymous.

According to the sensory channel

Depending on the sensory channel, it is possible to differentiate different kinds of communication:

10. Visual communication

In this type of communication, messages (for example, ideas) are transmitted through the visual medium and are perceived through sight .

11. Auditory communication

It is a type of communication in which messages and information is perceived through the ear . For example, music. Of course, it is one of the most used types of communication, since it can connect two people over a relatively wide distance and, in addition, it makes it easy to locate the source of the message, something that does not happen for example with the olfactory.

12. Touch communication

In tactile communication, information is perceived through touch , usually through the skin or through braille writing.

13. Olfactory communication

The message that is received by the olfactory route shapes the olfactory communication. For example, the act of perceiving the information that a person gives by their smell. 

Like the auditory communication the message can cross long distances, but in this case it is not easy to locate the source or establish a sequence of information. However, the message remains in the environment much longer than what happens with the sounds.

14. Taste communication

It is a type of communication in which information is sent through taste . For example, when a “chef” prepares a recipe for a group of diners. Unfortunately, in this type of communication the information is usually limited to the chemical properties of the element being savored, and there are no precise data or information chains.

According to the technological channel

Depending on the technological channel, the types of communication can be:

15. Telephone communication

It is the communication that is done through the telephone set . Whether fixed or mobile. It allows you to interact with people who are far away.

16. Virtual or digital communication

Virtual or digital communication is the communication that occurs thanks to the world connected through Internet t. It includes both a Skype conversation and the sender’s writing and the receiver’s reading of an article published in a blog.

17. Television communication

The communication that occurs through the television is television communication.

18. Cinematic communication

It is the communication that occurs through the big screen and thanks to feature films or film productions.

According to the use or purpose

Depending on the purpose or objective of the communication, this may be:

19. Advertising communication

This type of communication occurs when a company sends a message, usually to a group of consumers, to publicize its brand or sell a product . In this case, the main interested party is the issuer, who wants to sell something.

20. Journalistic communication

It is the communication that is done through different means of communication in order to inform the receiver from the journalistic point of view.

21. Educational communication

The content of this kind of communication is educational . For example, when a student attends a class in which his teacher is teaching a subject.

22. Political communication

Information of this type is communication is political and the content usually has a strong ideological charge. For example, when someone attends a debate in which the issuer is a politician who intends to win his vote. Unlike advertising, propaganda is not intended to encourage buying, but to change the mentality of the recipients.

Other types of communication

There are also other types of communication:

23. Sign communication

This type of communication refers to that used by deaf and deaf people and the people around them to establish a communication channel with their social social circles, whether it is made up of other deaf people or people without hearing problems.

24. Organizational communication

Organizational communication refers to the communication that occurs within companies and companies outside . It also receives the name of corporate communication.

25. Vertical communication

Vertical communication is a type of communication that occurs between different levels or hierarchical positions within an organization. There are two types:

  • Upward communication : from employees to senior managers.
  • Descending communication : from senior managers to employees.

26. Horizontal communication

Another type of organizational communication that occurs within the same level . For example, between departments with the same hierarchical rank or among workers of the same office.

27. Sexual communication

The content of the communication is sexual . Either through verbal language or by sending photos through WhatsApp, what is known as ” Sexting .”

28. Emotional communication

Emotional communication refers to the content being emotional . It can be verbal, when expressing feelings, or nonverbal, for example, when laughing or crying. 

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