It is a scientific method created with the aim of increasing production within organizations and improving the efficiency of workers . Scientific management is commonly called “ Taylorism ”. scientific management theory
It is known for its application in engineering, specifically on the shop floor (the production area of a factory or company) or mass production levels.
The theory was created to be applied in the recruitment, selection and training of workers and is also used to face numerous problems of productivity, inefficiency and noise in communication within an industry, in order to increase production levels.
The origin of the term scientific management can be traced to Charles Babbage, who discussed the principles of the theory in his book “The Economy of Manufacturers”, published in 1832.
However, the person who popularized the theory and made it universally known was the American Fredrick Winslow Taylor , considered the father of scientific management. It is because of this that scientific management is called “ Taylorism ”. scientific management theory
Summary of Scientific Management Theory
Scientific management theory has focused on improving the efficiency of each individual within the organization.
The main emphasis is on increasing production through the use of technology. Thus, human beings are considered just helpers of machines during routine tasks.
Scientific management theory basically covers work performed on the shop floor, as these bureaucratic and administrative tasks are quite different from others performed within an organization.
An example of this is repetitive tasks, where workers are divided into large groups and perform the same daily actions, with cyclical repetitions. scientific management theory
These actions aim to help the machinery to fulfill a large-scale production.
Furthermore, these activities do not require the individual worker to perform complex tasks in order to solve problems. Thus, scientific management theory focuses on the standardization of working methods .
Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management
The principles considered by Taylor as fundamental in scientific management can be summarized as follows:
- Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of tasks;
- Scientifically select, train and develop each employee, instead of passively leaving them to train themselves;
- Cooperate with workers to ensure that scientifically developed methods are being followed;
- Divide activities almost equally between managers and workers, so that managers apply scientific management principles to work planning and employees actually get the job done.
Taylor focused on paying wages based on scale of production. He also emphasized time and motion study and other techniques for measuring work. scientific management theory
Furthermore, in Taylor’s work, there is also a strong humanist theme. He had an idealistic notion that the interests of workers, managers and owners should be harmonized.
The history of the creation of Scientific Management
Dr. Frederick Winslow Taylor was born in 1856 in Philadelphia, United States of America. He came from a middle-class family and began his career as a small apprentice in a machine shop.
From a small apprenticeship, he rose to the position of Chief Engineer at Midvale Steel Works in 1884. There, he worked in almost every position before becoming Chief Engineer.
Because of this experience, Taylor came to know the problems faced by workers in all job positions. This practical experience encouraged him to develop the concept of scientific management. scientific management theory
He noticed that industrial resources were not being used properly and that companies were being managed by the rule of thumb.
No effort was made to find the exact nature of the work being done or even to find the best way to do it.
There was also no proper division of responsibilities between management and workers. Thus, management was largely dependent on the good performance of employees.
This whole set of situations encouraged him to create a method that would improve the efficiency of employees and the level of production.
The implementation of scientific management
He intended to make management a science based on well-recognized, clearly defined and fixed principles, rather than depending on more or less certain ideas. scientific management theory
Taylor then carried out many experiments to discover ways and means of reducing waste and inefficiency of all kinds in production processes. This eventually led to the emergence of the concept of Scientific Management.
Taylor’s philosophy of scientific approach was developed and popularized by contemporaries and associates such as Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth.
It was due to Taylor’s efforts that scientific management became popular in the United States of America in the early 20th century.