War confrontation that consolidated the Independence of Colombia. Battle of Boyacá day
|Date||August 7, 1819.|
|Place||Boyacá area, Colombia.|
|Belligerents||Independence Army vs. Realistic army.|
|Outcome||Victory of the independence army.|
The Battle of Boyacá (1819) was a warlike confrontation that consolidated the Independence of Colombia , and in turn one of the most important events during the entire process of Independence in South America.
In this battle the following sides faced:
- Realistic Army : which defended the dominion of the Spanish Empire over the American territories.
- Independence Army : under the command of Simón Bolívar , with the aim of making the viceroyalty of New Granada independent and emancipating itself from the Spanish Crown.
This battle took place on August 7, 1819 and symbolized the end of Spanish rule over New Granada , an important viceroyalty in the territory of present-day Colombia.
It was carried out in the vicinity of Tunja, current department of Boyacá , on the banks of the Teatinos River and 110 kilometers from Santa Fé de Bogotá. Battle of Boyacá day
Thus, the Colombian Independence campaign culminated in this battle, which resulted in a decisive victory for the independence forces.
Causes and consequences Battle of Boyacá day
Causes Battle of Boyacá day
The independence process had begun years ago, but even in early 1819 these territories were officially under Spanish rule.
After the discontent due to the mismanagement of the Spanish Crown over its colonies, and the political instability that Spain was experiencing at that time , the right moment was propped up to start an independence campaign of what would be Gran Colombia , made up of current Ecuador, Venezuela and Colombia.
Simón Bolívar had left Angostura, Venezuela, with his army in the direction of Nueva Granada, starting the liberation campaign in May 1819.
A month earlier, the independence army had succeeded over the Spanish, in the so-called battle of Pantano de Vargas. This caused a boost of spirit in the patriotic troops, who fought for the last time in the battle of Boyacá.
Upon learning of the intentions of Bolívar’s campaign, the royalist forces decided to rally their army to repel the independence movement, but they were unable to do so. Thus, the Battle of Boyacá was victorious and sealed the intentions of Bolívar’s campaign.
Consequences Battle of Boyacá day
Among the main consequences of the Battle of Boyacá we can highlight the following:
- The Independence of Gran Colombia from Spanish rule.
- The end of the viceroyalty of New Granada and the mandate of Viceroy Juan de Sámano.
- The creation of Gran Colombia, made up of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, the Captaincy General of Venezuela and the Royal Audience of Quito.
- The impulse of the leaderships of the patriots in South America .
- The creation of the Order of Boyacá , the highest decoration awarded by the Colombian government to citizens and the military. Battle of Boyacá day
- On the Spanish side, 100 dead, 150 wounded and more than 1,600 prisoners were reported, while on the pro-independence side there were 53 wounded and 13 dead .
Among the main characters of the Battle of Boyacá the following stand out:
- Simón Bolívar (1783-1830) : Venezuelan general who commanded the patriotic forces during the liberation campaign of New Granada. After achieving his mission with said battle, he continued leading the fight for the Independence of South America.
- Francisco de Paula Santander (1792-1840) : military man of Colombian origin, born in Cúcuta, who led one of the battalions that defeated the Spanish in Boyacá. He also had an important participation in different fronts of struggle for independence and became the second president of the Republic of New Granada. Battle of Boyacá day
- José María Barreiro (1793-1819) : royalist general in command of the troops that fought on behalf of the Spanish Crown in Boyacá. He was taken prisoner during the battle and later executed.