Methodology is understood as the set of norms and actions designed to describe a problem. In general, methodology is a part of scientific research. In this sense, the scientist starts from a hypothesis as a possible explanation of a problem and tries to find a law that explains it. Between the hypothesis and the final resolution, the scientist must follow a path, that is, a research method. Thus, the study of methods is known as methodology. In other words, the methodology responds to the “how” of a study or research.
The concept of methodology belongs to science. However, it is usually applied in non-scientific contexts (there is a methodology related to games, sports , work organization and the teaching of a discipline ).
Basic items and recommendations
In practice, a scientific methodology is organized from different phases. First, a literature review step. Then comes the field research phase, laboratory, information processing and, finally, analysis and results. Methodology
Applying a methodology implies following an action order, where it is advisable to comply with a series of recommendations: define the list of tasks to be performed, determine a sequence or order of execution, establish a duration of the various actions and define each goal or objective.
There are three main paths in most research: the inductive, the deductive and the hypothetical-deductive.
It is based on gathering specific information in order to draw a general conclusion. This method has the following steps: observation and recording of facts, analysis and classification of events, and also a generalized inductive derivation based on the facts (also known as inductive inference). An example of inductive reasoning would be the following: whenever I hit an iron it heats up, whenever I hit a copper it heats up, whenever I hit a steel it heats up, conclusion, I believe that most likely all metals heat up when hit. Methodology
It is based on the idea that the conclusions reached in a research are implicit in the premises. In other words, when the arguments are right the conclusions will necessarily be right as well. This method goes from the general to the particular and is the antithesis of the inductive approach. An example of deduction as a form of reasoning would be the following: my uncle André’s children have the same name as your father, therefore, my uncle’s children are called André.
According to this method, science does not start from observation, since sensitive data are not suitable for constructing a hypothesis. The starting point of this method is the observation of a phenomenon, followed by a provisional hypothesis that explains this phenomenon, then comes the deduction of the consequences and the verification of the deduced statements from which they contrast with the experience. This method involves a combination of purely rational reflection (the proposal of the hypothesis and the consequent deductions) and empirical observation (the moment of verification).
The Polya method, another way to approach a survey
Methodology as a guiding approach to research has been enriched with contributions from theorists such as George Polya. This 20th century Hungarian mathematician proposed a method based on four items: Methodology
1) Understand the problem properly,
2) Design a plan to solve the problem,
3) Execute an action plan,
4) Examine the obtained solution.