Geodesy is a scientific discipline that studies the dimensions and shape of the Earth. In this sense, it is similar to topography, but there is a significant difference between them, as the topography is carried out in a specific territory and on a small scale ; geodesy approaches terrestrial measurement in large extensions. For this reason, it can be said that when topography ends, geodesy begins.
Remote origin and the object of study
In century III a. C the Greek Eratosthenes calculated the approximate length of the Equator by measuring shadow angles and other solar measurements. Other Greek scientists began measuring the Earth’s approximate size and shape, as well as its distance from the Sun and early terrestrial maps. For all these reasons, geodesy is considered to be one of the oldest sciences idealized by human beings. Geodesy
It can be said that this discipline is concerned with defining where the territories of our planet are and for this reason terrestrial measurements are made. These measurements establish the location of continents in other geological eras and, simultaneously, their movement. On the other hand, according to geodetic measurements it was possible to determine that the Earth is not a perfect sphere, but slightly wider in the center.
In geodetic studies there are several fundamental technical aspects:
1) geometric analysis that focuses on the study of the earth’s surface;
2) the set of parameters that serve to establish a coordinate system , known as geodetic datum;
3) the universal reference systems that are used by all nations. Geodesy
Since the beginning of the 1990s, geodesy has had a very useful tool, the Global Positioning System, better known for its acronyms GPS. This technological system is a synthesis of all scientific knowledge of geodesy.
From the reference points of space, geodetic studies allow to determine the latitude and longitude of any position, which is a determining factor for navigation
Knowledge of the geographic structure of a region is essential for the construction of railways, roads or tunnels.
With the incorporation of data provided by satellites, it is already possible to observe changes in the Earth’s crust, the exact length of days and how the tides move. Geodesy