Fascism is a political movement that first emerged in Italy in the 20s, during the 20th century and was imposed as a form of government until the 2nd World War. This ideological current began to be developed in response to the economic crisis and social instability suffered by the country as a result of the 1st World War.
The Italian fascist regime had the following characteristics
On the one hand it opposed democracy and introduced a totalitarian system , as well as strong intervention by the state and the entire structure of society . Fascism had an expansionist interest, as Italy carried out several campaigns in countries such as Libya and Ethiopia. It exalted national values and despised some groups , mainly Jews.
The economic perspective was based on autarchy and the execution of large public works
A fundamental aspect was the cult of the leader’s personality , becoming a symbol of the nation. To stay in power, fascism militarized the country, repressed political and individual freedom , and used propaganda to maintain control of society.
The values and ideals of Italian fascism influenced other countries, especially Germany and Spain, however, with another name. Germany adopted National Socialism and Spain National Catholicism.
Fascism, within its various modalities, presented some aspects specific to each nation:
Italy exalted will over reason; Germany defended the idea of Aryan supremacy and Spain showed an alliance between the political system and Catholicism. Despite some differences, fascism had features in common. In addition to those mentioned above, there was a strong and violent rejection against communism, hi anarchism and democracy.
The fascist movement lost two of its fundamental pillars after World War II (the tragic endings of Mussolini and Hitler). Franco’s dictatorial regime was based on the principles of fascism but had no imperialist aspiration. He remained in power as a victor after the Spanish Civil War.
Even though in a minority form, fascism remains present in Europe in recent decades
As opposed to democracy, there is a majority rejection of this ideology . However, in some moments of economic crisis, certain parties with this ideology faced the malaise of some sectors of the population (for example, groups opposed to emigration and the opening of national borders).