All living things consume an amount of energy to carry out their vital functions. These functions are quite varied: the formation of the tissues themselves, breathing, food digestion , mechanical work for displacement, etc. Energy Expenditure
Energy expenditure is also known as caloric expenditure. It is the relationship that comprises two factors: the caloric intake we need to live and the calories we consume through different daily activities.
The measurement of energy expenditure should be individualized and adapted to personal circumstances
To carry out daily activities we need energy, which comes from the food we eat every day. In this sense, the concept of energy expenditure is based on the sum of three factors or components: basal metabolism , physical activity performed and the thermogenic action of food.
Basal metabolism is responsible for the maintenance of physiological functions in our body and depends on several factors: gender, age, type of person , health status , hormonal factors, genetic predisposition and growth phase.
Physical activity causes a certain drain on energy
Resting on a sofa entails a minimal expenditure, approximately 2.5 kilocalories per minute. Running for an hour at an intense pace can consume 1000 kilocalories.
The thermogenic action of food refers to the energy the body needs for food intake. Roughly, this action represents between 5 and 10% of total energy expenditure.
Useful information for dieters and for those who do intense physical activity
Total energy expenditure (GET) can be calculated. One of the measures is the Harris-Benedict equation, which has three factors: weight, height and age. Thus, a 30-year-old man, 1.78 cm tall and weighing 78 kilos should spend approximately 2500 calories per day (1800 with the expenditure of basal metabolism, 500 calories through physical activity and 200 with the thermogenic action of food) . There are other models for measuring energy expenditure, such as indirect calorimetry, heart rate monitoring or accelerometry.
Obviously, everything we spend depends on the calories we get from food and what is important is that there is an adequate ratio between food intake and energy consumption.