Azoospermia is a condition in which sperm are not observed in the ejaculation process , constituting an important cause of male infertility depending on the case.
It obeys two fundamental causes. On the one hand, there is an alteration in sperm production known as secretory azoospermia; on the other hand, even with normal sperm production, there is an alteration in the ducts that carry the semen to the urethra, called obstructive azoospermia.
There are a variety of causes that lead to the appearance of azoospermia, it is even possible that this condition is intermittent, that is, that in some ejaculations the semen lacks sperm while in others the sperm content is normal and even high.
There are also situations in which azoospermia is reversible and this occurs as a result of a transitory situation, such as the use of some medications and treatments such as radio or chemotherapy, including the course of infections that accompany very high fever.
Azoospermia due to failures in sperm production
This type of azoospermia is due to a large number of causes that lead to the non-production of sperm in the testis.
These causes bring disorders such as some genetic failures that include Klinefelter syndrome, which even with its external appearance being male, genetically the individual is not XY, but has chromosomal variants such as XXY that affect their testosterone production. Another genetic cause is Y chromosome changes.
It is also possible that azoospermia is due to the lack of development of the testicles and even their absence, or to the fact of being injured and ceasing to function due to trauma, changes in circulation such as in the case of a testicular torsion or as a sequel to infections that produce testicular inflammation known as orchitis.
In this type of azoospermia, sperm production is normal, however it affects a pathway that sperm follow from the testis to the urethra for their elimination, known as the seminal pathway.
It is also possible that it affects the release of sperm in situations that affect the ejaculation, such as the existence of spinal cord injuries or in conditions where there is retrograde ejaculation in which the semen does not come out and stays in the bladder, a phenomenon related to certain disorders such as diabetes.
The cause of azoospermia is often untreated, however there are both medical and surgical procedures that allow these men to have healthy genetic children, especially when it comes to obstructive azoospermia that obtains sperm from the testicle and even freezes them to be used later in a insemination procedure.