What is Azoospermia types causes and treatment


Azoospermia is the complete absence of sperm in the semen, being one of the main causes of infertility in men. This condition can happen due to obstruction in the place where sperm should pass, infections or as a result of a blow to the testicles, for example.

Although azoospermia is one of the main causes of infertility in men, there are also other problems that can prevent a man from getting his partner pregnant, such as infections or hormonal changes. Learn about the  main causes of infertility in men and how to treat them.

The treatment of azoospermia is done according to the cause, and surgery is usually indicated, especially when there is obstruction in the vas deferens. Thus, by clearing the passage, it is possible to restore man’s reproductive capacity. However, it is important that a spermogram be performed to assess the characteristics of the sperm and ensure its viability.

types of azoospermia

Azoospermia can be classified into two main types according to the probable cause, namely:

  • Obstructive azoospermia:  there is obstruction at the site where the sperm should pass, which may be due to changes in the vas deferens, epididymis or due to vasectomy surgery, for example;
  • Non-obstructive azoospermia:  it is characterized by the lack of sperm production, which can be a consequence of some congenital disease or due to blows to the testicles.

The type of azoospermia is identified by the urologist through imaging tests, such as abdominal and testicular ultrasound, in addition to laboratory tests.

Main causes of azoospermia

Azoospermia is caused by any condition that affects the production, storage, or transport of sperm to the urethra. Therefore, the main causes include:

  • Injuries to the testicles or epididymis caused by blows;
  • Infections in the male reproductive system;
  • Presence of tumor in the testicle;
  • Side effect of any chemotherapy drug;
  • Cryptorchidism, which is a situation where the testicles do not descend into the scrotum;
  • Varicocele;
  • Recent surgery in the pelvic area;
  • Infections in the genital region.

In addition, the presence of genetic alterations can also cause difficulty in sperm production, eventually causing azoospermia from birth.

How to confirm the diagnosis

The most common way to diagnose azoospermia is through a spermogram, a laboratory test in which a sample of the man’s semen is evaluated, allowing the quality and quantity of sperm present to be verified. Understand how the spermogram is made.

However, even if the spermogram indicates alterations or the absence of spermatozoa in the semen, the urologist must request other complementary tests to confirm the diagnosis and identify its cause. Thus, imaging tests, such as abdominal and testicular ultrasound, may be recommended, in addition to laboratory tests, such as hormone dosage and genetic alteration research, in some cases.

How the treatment is done

The treatment of azoospermia is done according to the cause, but normally when it comes to obstructive azoospermia, the treatment is surgical and aims to correct the cause, allowing sperm to pass through again.

In the case of non-obstructive azoospermia, the treatment is more complicated, and the man must undergo complementary tests, mainly hormonal, to verify his reproductive capacity.

In either case, it is always very important for the man to follow up with a psychologist, as the diagnosis can create negative emotions, which can end up causing depression, especially since some men may feel their masculinity is affected.

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