At the beginning of the 20th century, the art world experienced an authentic revolution. A series of avant-garde movements emerged that influenced most artistic styles. One of these avant-garde movements was futurism, initiated in Italy by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, author of the illustrious Manifesto Futurista, published in 1909, in one of the most prestigious periods in Europe, Le Figaro. Futurism
Futurism did not appear spontaneously, as the Western world was experiencing a period of optimism: the automobile exploded in cities, cinema was a mass spectacle, and the great explorers reached all parts of the planet. It seemed that the man was projecting himself towards a hopeful future. And this idea of a full future is the essential element of Futurism.
In the field of literature, futurism proposes that language be open to the idea of change and the creation of new terms that connect with modernity
Get away from the decadent, traditional forms and the melancholy spirit of other styles like the romantic. Ideas that were normally ignored by literary creation are extolled: the power of machines, speed or new technical inventions. There is a claim to force as a transformative idea, so this formal aspect later materialized when some futurist writers expressed their sympathy for fascism led by Mussolini.
The links between futurism and fascism have sparked controversy among literary scholars
In this sense, one cannot forget that Marinetti’s texts devalued feminism and moralism, as well as museums and bookstores, symbols of a past that he considered outdated.
In addition to the cultural debate and the political connection of some authors and followers of futurism, it is evident that this trend was not limited only to poetry as other avant-garde manifestations, but also to the various arts that influenced its spirit: photography, sculpture, scenography and more particularly theatre, introducing a really new experimental focus.
Futurism served as an inspiration to other currents. In Spain, Ramon Gomez de la Serna was the writer who came to know Marinetti’s work in avant-garde environments. Furthermore, it had a notable influence on Spanish and Latin American ultraism. His aesthetic ideals were also embraced by other disciplines, for example, graphic design .