What are Verbs?
The verb is the core of the verbal phrase and, therefore, of the predicate. It is a verb every word capable of constituting a sentence by itself (since it implies the subject) or with the help of a noun. Many verbs indicate actions, such as dancing, speaking, flying … But many others express states or processes that beings experience, such as being, being, living, growing, aging, staying, and so on.
The verb admits many different forms, which are the result of combining two parts:
- The root or lexeme of the verb supports the semantic meaning : cant-ar, com-er, part-ir .The root is obtained by removing the ending – ar, -er or -ir from the infinitive : cant -ar, beb -er, salt -ir .
- The endings are terminations are added to the same root for different forms of a verb, and provide grammatical meanings : cant- or , cant- Abais , cant- arán .These meanings are: person, number, time, mode and appearance.
The verbs are grouped into three conjugations according to the thematic vowel that they present at the beginning of their disengagement. The thematic vowel is clearly seen in the termination of the infinitives:
Number and person
THE GRAMMATICAL PERSON
- The first person identifies with the speaker , or speakers. You can take personal pronouns as me, we, us
- The second person is the person who is spoken to . It carries as subject the personal pronouns you, you, you .
- The third person refers to every being or object that is neither the first nor the second person . He can carry personal pronouns as he, she, they, they, you, you , and also all nouns.
The three grammatical people can appear in the singular or in the plural .
Time, mode and appearance
Verbal forms place the action at a certain time , which can be present , past (past) and future .
It manifests the action of the verb, and there are three tenses:
- The indicative is the mode of objectivity , of the impartiality of the speaker; This is limited to exposing a past, present or future event: A storm is approaching .
- The subjunctive is the mode of subjectivity , of the emotional participation of the speaker in front of the action; Express a desire, fear, possibility, doubt, etc . : Good luck .It is also used to make orders in negative sentences: Do not come tomorrow .
- The imperative is the mode of the mandate ; It is used to give orders or instructions in affirmative sentences
The verb can also inform about the development of the action . The aspect characterizes the action from the point of view of its course or its term.
There are two aspects:
- Perfect : it presents the finished action, whether it is present, as if it is past or future: At eight I will have arrived in London .
- Imperfect : shows the unfinished action, in its course: Tomorrow I will fly to London .The aspect is expressed by means of disengagement, but also with some verbal periphrasis
The set of forms that share the same notions of time, mode and aspect and that only show variation of number and person constitutes a tense .
There are two series of verb tenses, simple tenses and compound tenses . Except for the imperative, a single time corresponds to each simple time that indicates prior to that.
|Modes||Simple times||Compound times|
|Indicative||Present ( I love )||Present perfect ( I’ve loved )|
|Past ( loved )||Past perfect ( had loved )|
|Simple past ( I loved )||Past tense ( I had loved )|
|Future (I will love )||Future perfect ( I will have loved )|
|Conditional ( would love )||Conditional perfect ( would have loved )|
|Subjunctive||Present ( love )||Present perfect ( loved )|
|Past imperfect ( amara? Amase )||Past perfect ( would have loved / loved )|
|Future (I will love )||Future perfect (would have loved )|
|Imperative||Present ( love )|
Usefulness of verbs
We use the verbs daily. These are words that define actions and that help us make the language complete so that we can communicate successfully with others. In all the sentences there is a word that will be informing you about what is done, it is said, it is thought … that is, it informs us about the actions of someone.
For example, ‘Today we eat lentils’, the verb would be ‘we eat’, whose root would be ‘com’ and ’emos’ the disengagement (the root represents the basic meaning of the verb and the disinfection indicates the number, the person, the time and The mode).
All verbs are words that will tell you what a subject does or does happen, they are words that indicate actions or states that happen in a given time and also words that inform you about what happens, does or thinks someone at a given time . Without a doubt, verbs are essential to be able to communicate both in oral language and in written language . The division is marked in a subject and predicate sentence.
Types of verbs according to their conjugation or flexion
Regular verbs : they conjugate evenly without change in sui root. These verbs are easily recognized by their terminals in 1st conjugation: –ar, 2nd conjugation: -er and 3rd conjugation: – go. Infinitives like: love, run, live.
To know if a verb is regular or not, you just have to observe the forms in three tenses: the present indicative, the past perfect simple and the future indicative. For example of the verb to start: part-o (present of indicative), part-í (the past perfect simple) and part-iré (future of indicative).
Irregular verbs: Irregular verbs are those that change their roots when conjugated. For example: tell: story.
Impersonal verbs: Verbs that are only used in infinite sentences and always in the third person of each time.
Defective verbs: They do not have verbal forms in their conjunction. For example: abolish, soler …
In addition to the types of verbs according to their conjugation or flexion, we can also find others:
|Verbs that from the temporary duration of the actions:|
|Perfectives: they are verbs in which the result of their action does not occur until it ends.|
|Imperfectives: These are verbs that indicate the action without its term.|
|According to the contribution of meaning they offer, they can be:|
|Copulatives (being and being): verbs that function as a union between the subject and what is said about him, which does not change the meaning.|
|Semicopulatives: It is also known as semipredicatives and is halfway between the copulative verb and the predicative since it has characteristics of both.|
|Preachers: they are used to express an action, state or passion.|
|Transitive: when the action that is executed falls on the other thing.|
|Reflective: they are formed from a verb and a reflexive pronoun.|
|Intransitive: those that do not have a complement or direct object.|
|To support the meaning of other verbs:|
|Auxiliaries: They do not have lexical content and are always used as a complement to the main verb. (verb to have)|
|Reciprocals: when there is a change of action between two things or beings.|
When verbs are used
Once at this point it is important to know how verbs are used to do it correctly. The verb is a word that is used to show an action and has a connection between the subject and a noun, although it is also used to show the mood of the subject. Action verbs often show action infinitives such as running or singing and connecting verbs connect two words, such as: the child is hungry.
In addition, verbs are used depending on whether they are personal or non-personal verbs. In personal verbs they show us person, time, mode and number. In non-personal verbs, they do not conjugate or have disinsenses or suffixes (infinitive, gerund and participle).
Verbs can be classified according to the meaning they give to the sentence or phrase, these can be simple or complex, and classified into the following verbal groups.
Main types of verbs:
Simple Verbs.- They are the ones that always constitute the core of all predicates.
20 examples of simple verbs:
- look for
- have breakfast
- to write
- to lose
Indicative verbs.- Are those that are used to express actions that we carry out, they are conjugated in the simple future, perfect future, infinitive in the present tenses, simple conditional, compound conditional, past perfect, past perfect, past perfect and past simple.
10 Examples of indicative verbs:
- We speak
- I will talk
- You will run
- You ran
- We went out
- Come out
- You run
- I have loved
Copulative verbs.- These function as copulation or union between the subject and what is affirmed or denied of the subject, without there being a modification of the meaning, they are verbs such as being and being.
10 Examples copulative verbs:
- The broth is hot
- God is good
- The girl is sad
- The young man is alone
- The cart is without horse
- The restaurant will be full
- The horse was fast
- The cat looks like a lion
- Your father will come tired
- The fox looks like a dog.
Irregular Verbs.- They are those that when conjugated in some time or mode, modify their root.
10 Examples of irregular verbs:
- Destroy / destroy
- Enter / enter
- Deduct / deduct
- Lack / lack
- Enrich / enrich
- Think think
- Warm / hot
- Feel / feel
- Lack / lack
- Include / include
Infinitive Verbs.- Infinitive verbs are words that express actions and have an ending in “ar”, “er” or “go”. These are divided into two regular and irregular types.
20 Examples of infinitive verbs:
- Go down
- To drink
- Look for
- To correct
Subjunctive Verbs.- S on those that present an action as possible or hypothetical, they are usually preceded by words like “what”, it is the case that I knew and that I have known.
Complex Verbs.- Those verbs that are no longer composed of a word, but by more than one, are called complexes, as in the case of has risen, and has prayed.
Another type of complex verb is parasynthetic, which tend to have the adhesion “ar” and “a”.
Intransitive.- Are those that have no direct object, with exceptions.
Transitive.- Are those that have direct object.
Regulars.- Their conjugation does not vary between the different verbs of the same ending.
Imperatives.- Only those who express a verbal form in which an order is given.