Communication is the process of transmitting and receiving messages between a sender and a receiver . These messages are transmitted in a certain context, through a certain channel, presenting a content encoded in a specific code. In this artcle we will provide you the elements of communication.
What are the elements of communication?
The communication process consists of six essential elements:
|The sender is the person who produces and issues the message, initiating the communicative act. It is also called an announcer or speaker.
|The receiver is the person who receives the message issued by the sender. The message is thus intended for the receiver, also called interlocutor or listener. It can be one person or a group of people.
|The message is the set of information transmitted by the sender. It can be verbal or non-verbal, written or spoken.
|The channel is the medium in which or through which the message is transmitted: email, cell phone, radio, television, newspaper,…
|The code is the set of signs and signals used in the transmission of the message: Portuguese language, English language, sign language, colors, sounds,…
|Context is the communicative situation in which the interlocutors find themselves: environment, space, time,… It is also called referent.
For there to be communication, all these elements must be present.
It is imperative that the message sent by the sender is understood by the receiver. For this, sender and receiver must be involved in the same communicative context, the channel must be accessible to all interlocutors and the code must be known and understood by all.
If one of these elements fails, the message is not properly transmitted, and there is no communication. It may occur: ignorance of the code by the receiver, non-accessibility to the communicative channel, communication noise,…
The director of a company sends an email to all employees of the company to inform them that there will be no work accidents with sick leave, and unpaid leave for personal matters. In the latter case, the firm may cut the employee’s salary increase due to the drop in production and sale of products.
Sender : company director
Recipients : company employees
Message : There will be no work accidents with sick leave, and unpaid leave for personal matters. In the latter case, the firm may cut the employee’s salary increase due to the drop in production and sale of products.
Channel : e-mail
Code : Portuguese language
Context : company, work environment
Communication elements and language functions
The six elements of communication are directly related to the six functions of language.
|Emotive or expressive function. Used to convey the emotions and feelings of the sender.
|Appellative or conative function. Used to influence and persuade the receiver.
|Poetic function. Used to convey an aesthetically crafted and formally structured message.
|Referential or denotative function. Used to inform about a certain subject in a clear and objective way.
|Phatic function. Used to establish a communication channel between sender and receiver.
|Metalinguistic function. Used to explain the actual code used.