Language and Linguistics

Types of languages

Languages ​​are sign systems used by a community for communication and exchange of messages verbally or in writing. In order to be effective or used, the community must share this system, which is identified by having its own characteristics of pronunciation, accent and inscription .Types of languages

It has its own grammatical and syntactic systems, differing from one another according to the different conventions that each territory has for it. For example, the English and Spanish languages ​​have the same use of letters in their alphabet , but not the same convention as to what they group together mean and how they are pronounced.

Types of languages

Depending on their history and geography, and the relationship that individuals have with languages, they can be classified by language, that is, the condition of the language:

1. Mother tongue: It is the language we learn at birth . It is the one that we speak with total fluency and was passed down from generation to generation . Many times it can happen that the mother tongue is not that of the parents, since if they speak one language but for some reason emigrated to a territory with a different language, the descendants will probably learn the language of the context in which they develop faster. In this case, they may have a second language or the so-called acquired language , which is the second language that is learned fluently.

2. Living language: Living languages ​​are those present in any native of a community currently in operation and constantly changing . They are called alive due to the quality of being able to undergo alterations with the current of their use, and some of the original concepts or denominations may vary or be substantially modified.

This type of language is any of those commonly used today. An example could be the change in the city of Buenos Aires, at the time of immigration, when the influence of Italian, Spanish, German and other languages ​​gave rise to lunfardo, whose terms were coined in everyday use.

3. Dead language : This type of language, contrary to the previous one, is one that is not used formally , and that even, in some cases, no one recognizes or could decipher . This type of language is no longer the mother tongue of anyone, that is to say that it is not susceptible to being transmitted in the same way or to undergoing habitual changes in the other. Some examples are ancient Hebrew, Latin or Sanskrit.

4. Sacred language: This type of language is distinguished by its use, not current or maternal in individuals in general, but only in relevant religious rituals . It is generally carried out by priests or clerics who are one of the few who know them and are usually original to the rituals they are presenting. Latin, in this case, is an exception to the dead language since the Pope, for example, continues to use it.

5. Official language: Generally, the territories recognize a language as their own , in order to distinguish and identify their linguistic or idiomatic system from another. The official language is the language that a State internationally recognizes as its own and that is the one that prevails in other systems because it is used by the majority. It is also the language used in national constitutions, public acts, in administrations or trials, and with which education is imparted in schools.

6. Regional language: Within a territory with an official language, there may also be regional languages ​​given linguistic confluences due to proximity to other countries with a different language or due to the historical tradition that a language has had in a certain place. One case is the Guaraní language, which is used in northwestern Argentina and is shared by many of its inhabitants, as well as on the borders with Paraguay and Brazil.

-Languages ​​can also be isolated , depending on the forms of expression they possess and their grammatical or orthographic composition. Some of them are the isolated language, unrelated to any living or dead language; the agglutinative, synthetic, analytic, fusional, or polysynthetic language. Types of languages

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