The transformation process in the modes of production and commercialization of goods. In this article we will provide you the causes of Industrial Revolution.
The process of transformation in the modes of production and commercialization of goods is known as the Industrial Revolution . This transformation had an enormous impact on labor relations, as well as on the social and economic organization of the European states at the beginning and of the rest of the world, in just a few years.
Over time, it modified social relations, the customs of the population and the system of relations between States, generating great changes on a global scale.
The Industrial Revolution process can be divided into two stages. The first, which we call the First Industrial Revolution, began in England in the late 17th century and continued into the 18th century . Manufactured goods went from being produced manually in workshops or small production units to being manufactured by machines in large factories.
The second, called the Second Industrial Revolution , was a phenomenon of the mid- nineteenth century . It had a strong impact on transportation and communications, as well as the emergence of new industries such as chemicals and steel.
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Characteristics of the Industrial Revolution
The main characteristics of the Industrial Revolution were the following:
- New technologies were developed for the production of goods, so that artisanal production was replaced by machinery production.
- The first industries transformed were the textile and metallurgical industry . In textiles, machines were invented to make threads (spinning machines) and fabrics (mechanical looms). Blast furnaces were built in the metallurgy for the production of iron.
- The new machines made it possible to produce more goods in less time and with less effort . In addition, they produced the goods in series, so that all the products were the same.
- As new sources of energy were needed for the machines, the development of the steam engine and the use of mineral coal (coke) instead of the vegetable was stimulated.
- Factories emerged , huge spaces where machines were located and productive activity was concentrated.
Causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution
The causes that originated the Industrial Revolution were the following:
- The changes in the organization of the English rural space provoked a phenomenon known as the Agricultural Revolution . Large tracts of land were concentrated in few owners who changed production techniques.
- Changes in agricultural production techniques improved the diet of the population and produced a demographic increase . This caused an increase in demand for manufactured goods , especially textiles.
- Many peasants lost the land where they worked and moved to the cities in search of work, where they were employed as laborers in the new factories.
- The English government stimulated innovation and the search for improvements to increase trade . Many businessmen were part of Parliament and favored policies in that sense.
- The British bourgeoisie had an entrepreneurial spirit and sufficient capital to invest in the development of new technologies.
- Great Britain had colonies that formed a huge market supplier of raw materials and consumer of manufactured products.
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The main consequences of the Industrial Revolution were the following:
- Industrial capitalism emerged , a new form of social organization, along with two new social groups. On the one hand, the industrial bourgeoisie, made up of the entrepreneurs who own the factories and the capital to produce; and on the other hand, the industrial workers, those who contributed workforce in exchange for a salary.
- People’s relationship with work changed . Workers stopped having control over production processes and their tasks became monotonous and repetitive.
- Abuses by industrialists of workers led to conflicts that eventually led to the emergence of workers’ associations, unions, and organizations to protect workers .
- There was a strong growth of the urban population, and at the same time that the cities grew, the rural population decreased.
- There was a change in consumer habits and the circulation of goods in the world.
Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Some of the main inventions of the Industrial Revolution were the following:
- Power spinning machine: in 1764 James Hargreaves invented the first power spinning machine, the Spinning Jenny, which made it possible to obtain numerous threads at the same time. In 1769, Richard Arkwight invented a spinning machine that used hydraulic power. In 1769, James Watt incorporated steam power into spinning machines.
- The steam engine : a machine that uses steam as a source of energy. The first was developed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. In 1769, James Watt perfected this invention and adapted it for use in the textile industry.
- Power loom : designed in 1784 by Edward Cartwright.
- Steam engine applied to transportation : Robert Fulton created the first steamship in 1807 and George Stephenson the first steam locomotive in 1825.