An expressive text is one whose main intention is to communicate the feelings , desires and thoughts of the speaker. Its function is oriented to the sender of the message. In addition, this expressive function is not only in written language, but also in oral.
According to a functional classification of the communicative act, there are different intentions when initiating a communication. Several overlapping functions can be found in any text. However, one of these is always predominant.
For example, in a referential or informative text, all statements are oriented towards the context of communication. This is perhaps the most common case. On the contrary, if the text has a concern for the message, for what is being said and how it is being said, it may be a poetic text.
When analyzing any edition of a newspaper, you will find many informative texts. However, articles in the opinion section or interviews can be considered expressive texts.
The main characteristic of expressive texts is that they are subjective. For this reason, it cannot be said that a statement is true or false, because it refers to an opinion or a feeling that is intimately associated with the author.
In this sense, these types of texts use a series of techniques and resources to communicate the ideas of the issuer.
Main characteristics of expressive texts
1- The first person predominates
Since the main intention of expressive texts is to communicate subjective information about the issuer, most of the sentences are constructed based on the first person singular or plural.
However, sentences with ambiguous or indeterminate subjects can also be elaborated.
– I am very hungry
– What a beautiful sunrise!
2- Use of exclamatory expressions
As expressive texts try to express emotions and feelings, the use of exclamatory expressions is quite common.
This type of expressions is used to communicate some state of mind. They are recognized in oral language by the intonation of the speaker, and in writing they are perceived through the inclusion of exclamation marks.
Other structures such as interjections can also be included in this type of sentence, since they depend on the state of mind of the speaker.
– I’m very happy to be here!
– Wow, it’s so cold!
– Oh how it hurts me!
3- Use of qualifying adjectives
The adjectives adjectives used to determine a quality of any noun. Its main function is to describe.
Expressive texts abound in these types of structures because they allow making value judgments about any thing or situation, and thus communicate the opinions of the issuer.
– That woman is very beautiful.
– I think the place is dirty.
4- Use of emphatic expressions
As expressive texts are fundamentally subjective, it is usual for them to use expressions that highlight certain elements.
That is why it is not uncommon to find superlatives and diminutives that serve to emphasize a particular aspect.
– Last night I slept terrible.
– The book seemed short to me.
5- Use of metaphorical language
The subjectivity of the expressive text also allows similes and metaphors to be made.
This type of resource is used to compare two things through a personal look or experience.
– His eyes were like the sky without clouds.
– He eats like his father and like his father sleeps.
6- Use of exaggerated expressions
Expressive text can contain a series of statements that stand out from the natural or everyday. A way of emphasizing something by bringing it to a comparison or fatality above the concern it deserves.
That is, it uses qualifying adjectives, emphatic expressions or metaphorical language, but giving it greater significance.
– A cockroach so big that it was able to help me with the housework came into my room.
– Raúl is heavier than a marble plane.