In other words, it is the study that seeks to find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the result of a specific statement.
The word epistemology comes from the Greek terms episteme , which means knowledge, and logia , which means study and is also known as the philosophy of science .
Epistemology is concerned with answering questions such as:
- How do we know the truth?
- How do we separate true ideas from false ideas?
- How do we acquire this knowledge or this statement?
In modern philosophy , epistemology is discussed by empiricist rationalists, provoking two different positions:
- the empiricist point of view , which states that knowledge must be based on experience, that is, on what is learned during life,
- and the rationalist position , which states that the source of knowledge is to be found in reason and not in experience.
Genetic Epistemology according to Jean Piaget
Genetic epistemology consists of a theory developed by biologist and philosopher Jean Piaget, where he states that genetics is the junction of two existing theories:
- the a priori , knowledge that does not rely on practical experience and
- the empiricism , where knowledge is acquired through practical experience.
The genetic theory created by Piaget follows a genetic linearity, which follows the human being’s development in 4 stages. Epistemology definition
However, the biologist also states that each child has their own pace and different ways of learning, and may not follow the stages
The 4 stages are:
- Sensorimotor : from 0 to 2 years of age, stage in which the child is in the phase of sensory operations, acquiring knowledge through the senses and developing skills based on these sensory experiences;
- Preoperative : from 2 to 7 years of age, where the child still acquires knowledge through practice, but with meanings (active language) and intuition for what they still learn in practice;
- Concrete operative : from 7 to 12 years old, when the child starts to use logic, but only through objects and mathematical problem solving;
- Formal or abstract operative : from 12 years of age, when the child starts to elaborate hypotheses and work with abstract knowledge, based on their own conclusions;
According to Piaget, knowledge is produced thanks to an interaction between the individual and his environment, according to structures that are part of the individual. Epistemology definition
Legal epistemology examines the factors that condition the origin of Law and has as one of its objectives to try to define its object of knowledge and assertions.
It is an area that is linked to reflection, which leads to an understanding of the various ways of understanding the concept of Law.
Legal epistemology also addresses the human being as a unique being, where each one has different ways of thinking and acting, and for this reason the Law can have several interpretations. Epistemology definition