Language and Linguistics

Comparative linguistics

Comparative linguistics , formerly comparative grammar or comparative philology , studies the relationships or correspondences between two or more languages ​​and the techniques used to discover whether the languages ​​have a common ancestor. Comparative grammar was the most important branch of linguistics in the nineteenth century in Europe. Also called comparative philology , the study was originally stimulated by Sir William Jones ‘s discovery in 1786 that Sanskrit was related to Latin, Greek, and German.

Before starting to make comparisons between languages, it is good to know a little more about this branch of linguistics, which can also be called comparative or comparative grammar.
The first linguist to point out the affinities between some languages ​​was William Jones in 1786, and since then many studies have been carried out, but it was only constituted in 1816, through works done by the German Franz Bopp. Comparative linguistics seeks to establish historical and genetic relationships, studying and identifying the various changes that led an ancient language to fragment into other languages. It uses a comparative method, which consists of comparing languages ​​that are considered to belong to the same family, through this method it is possible to establish links between languages ​​in order to establish kinship relationships.
To understand better, we can cite the book written by Franz Bopp that dealt with the conjugation of Sanskrit, from which Sanskrit was compared with other languages. From this comparison, the kinship between Sanskrit, Greek, Persian, Germanic and Latin languages ​​was perceived, so this “family of languages” was given the name of Indo-European.
It was among the studies of comparative linguistics that the concepts of letter and phoneme emerged, Dugriche-Desgenettes used the word phoneme for a sound unit of language, and Jacob Grimm used the term “letter” to name the graphic symbol and the sound. In 1877, Henry Sweet established a model of phonetic transcription, with different symbols for different sounds. In 1879, it was Sausurre who described phonemes, comparing different descriptions of phonemes in alphabets of different languages.
The great contribution of Comparative Linguistics was to show that the changes undergone by languages ​​are not chaotic as thought, they are regular and have a direction.

What is comparative historical linguistics?

Comparative linguistics , or comparative – historical linguistics (formerly comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages ​​to establish their historical kinship.

So, what is historical linguistics and what is the focus of historical linguistics?Historical linguistics , also called diachronic linguistics , the branch of linguistics concerned with the study of phonological, grammatical, and semantic changes, the reconstruction of the earlier stages of languages, and the discovery and application of the methods by which the genetic relationships between languages ​​can be

What is Linguistics as a source of history? Introduction. The study of languages ​​also helps the historian in his writing of the history of Africa. It is a field that is technically called linguistics . A detailed study is made of the language of the people, including the history of the language and its relationship to other languages.

In linguistics , the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages ​​by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages ​​with common descent from a shared ancestor and then extrapolating backwards to infer the properties of that ancestor.

Historical linguistics is a subfield of linguistics in which an investigation of the history of languages ​​is used to learn about how languages ​​are related, how languages ​​change, and what languages ​​were like hundreds and even thousands of years ago – even before the written records of a language .

Why is historical linguistics important?

A very important reason why historical linguists study language change is also because historical linguistics contributes significantly to other subfields of linguistics and to linguistic theory. This is because we can more accurately determine what can and cannot change in a language.

What are the branches of linguistics?

What are the three main branches of linguistics? Experimental phonetics. Descriptive phonetics. PhonologyMorphologySyntaxSemantics and pragmaticsPsycholinguisticssociolinguistics.

How can I become a historical linguist?

Aspiring linguists can pursue bachelor’s, master’s and/or doctoral degrees in linguistics, anthropology, computer science, cognitive neuroscience, English, or foreign languages ​​and literatures. A professional certificate or specialized training may be required.

What is the difference between diachronic and synchronic?

Synchronic linguistics is the study of language at any point in time, while diachronic linguistics is the study of language at different periods in history. Thus, the main difference between synchronic and diachronic linguistics is their focus or point of view of study.

How do linguists study language?

Linguists study the structure of language at various theoretical levels that range in size from tiny units of speech sounds to the context of an entire conversation. Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words, how stems join prefixes and suffixes to form whole words.

What is the meaning of philologist?

Philology. Philology is most commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, establishing their authenticity and original form, and determining their meaning. Anyone who pursues this type of study is known as a philologist.

What are diachronic and historical synchronic linguistics?

Diachronic linguistics is the same thing as historical linguistics. Diachronic linguistics is the study of changes in language over time. Synchronic linguistics is the study of linguistic elements and the use of a language at a given time.

What is social linguistics?

Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations and context, on the way language is used and the effect of society on language.

Who is the father of the comparative method?

Is it a qualitative or quantitative comparative study?

The comparative study focuses on the differences between the two subjects and clearly defines the comparative nature of the subjects. Qualitative analysis is sought much more often than quantitative analysis, and this is seen in most comparative studies that use quantitative data.

How do you write a comparative analysis?

Steps Review the dissertation question or suggestion carefully. Understand the type of comparison essay you are being asked to write. List similarities and differences between the items you are comparing. Evaluate your list to find your argument. Establish the basis for your comparison. Research your comparison subjects.

What is the comparative approach?

jpg. Historical-comparative approaches in sociology are research methods for studying social formation and transformation. “Comparative” studies examine and contrast social structures and processes across countries or regions to identify general patterns.

What are the methods of comparative politics?

Although the name of the subfield suggests a methodological approach (the comparative method), political scientists in comparative politics use the same diversity of social scientific methods as scientists in other areas, including experiments, comparative historical analysis, case studies, research methodology. ,

What are the methods of linguistics?

Sound production, phonemes, sound symbolism, lexical and non-lexical onomatopoeiaConsonance, diphthongs, vowels, assonance, sibilance, form of articulation.

Work method

The main method of work is based on comparison , between different states of the same language or between different languages, but from the same ancestor. It allows, by observing regular phonetic , syntactic and, more rarely, semantic concordances , to establish relationships between languages. Its first object of study is, therefore, the formal similarities revealed by these comparisons. It is comparative linguistics which therefore makes it possible to establish the existence of families of languages ​​which are then said to be linked by genetic relationships; She studies as follows:

  • how a mother tongue gives birth to its daughter languages;
  • the nature of the links between the mother tongue (which has sometimes disappeared) and the daughter languages;
  • the innovations and similarities that remain between the daughter languages ​​themselves, etc.

For example, it allows us to know that although they seem very similar (in writing and in the lexicon ), two languages ​​such as Arabic and Persian are not related, but that the latter is the same. Larger family than the French or even, more distantly, Icelandic .

Therefore, he is mainly interested in the changes experienced by these languages ​​throughout their history, be they semantic , phonetic , phonological , lexical , syntactic , etc. The most important branch of comparative linguistics is, however, historical phonetics , the only discipline that deals with developments that can be formally and objectively described and the only one that still allows it to be said that a B-word actually comes from a word. A or that the words B, C and D are all derived from a common etymon A and are therefore historically related. the etymology It is thus the result of a comparative approach it is through this approach that one must move to find a French word as a legacy does not come, despite the offending spelling due to popular etymology , to bequeath but to leave . The reconstruction of etymons at the origin of words taken from different sister languages, in turn, requires an even stronger comparative approach. In fact, it is necessary to find the original meaning of a term from its results in the languages ​​in question, an original meaning that, by being transmitted in languages ​​whose evolution is autonomous (and we know that semantic evolution does not follow any specific rules), may have changed significantly.

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