Meaning of Bourgeoisie
The middle and wealthy social class is called the bourgeoisie, in which those people who possess properties and high economic returns are grouped . Bourgeoisie and Proletariat definition
The term bourgeoisie derives from the French bourgeoisie , to refer to people who lived in cities where they had certain job privileges such as being merchants or artisans.
The bourgeoisie is a term that represents people who do not do any type of manual work and who have a significant accumulation of goods and money that turns them into wealthy people. Therefore, it is a term that designates the wealthy middle class .
The bourgeoisie is divided into three categories, which are: the upper bourgeoisie, which is responsible for the means of production and high political office; the middle bourgeoisie, who are the people who exercise a liberal profession; and the lower bourgeoisie, who are the people who are part of the industrial and commercial sector.
According to Karl Marx the bourgeoisie is a social class of the capitalist regime, in which its members are responsible for production, they own their own business and are the opposite of the working class.
Likewise, Marx recognizes that it is thanks to the bourgeoisie and its values that the term society evolved and opened the way to obtain civil rights and a representative State. Bourgeoisie and Proletariat definition
Origin of the bourgeoisie
The bourgeoisie emerged in the Middle Ages, specifically in Europe, when the main source of work was still rural activity, although there were already merchants of clothing, jewelry and spices, as well as artisans.
Therefore, the term bourgeoisie was used to designate people who had left the countryside and rural activity to move and live within the walled cities in new spaces called burgos. However, these people were looked down upon by the nobility.
It should be noted that the bourgeoisie were not feudal lords or serfs, nor did they belong to privileged classes such as the nobility, the clergy or the peasantry.
Since then, the bourgeoisie has increased and in the 18th century the bourgeoisie ideologically expressed their values and interests regarding the individual, work, innovation, progress, happiness, freedom and equal conditions, themes summarized in the French revolutionary motto: liberté , égalité , fraternité . Bourgeoisie and Proletariat definition
Likewise, it was the bourgeoisie who actively participated in the French Revolution and in the Industrial Revolution, demanding their social rights, political rights and economic rights.
On the other hand, with the emergence of the bourgeoisie, bipartisanship originated in the political system, after the French Revolution, which consists of the composition of two majority parties, in this case, the bourgeois party on the one hand and the aristocracy. for the other.
Currently, people who belong to the middle class or who have their own business are called bourgeoisie. However, there is also a derogatory use of the term bourgeoisie since it is used to catalog common and vulgar people who do not have very good taste.
Characteristics of the bourgeoisie
Below are the main characteristics of the bourgeoisie.
- It is made up of levels at which groups of individuals differ according to their wealth, work activity and prestige.
- Its fundamental value is to recognize civil rights and the division of powers.
- It is based on the conception that states must have a representative political system.
- The bourgeois can hold political office. Bourgeoisie and Proletariat definition
- The bourgeoisie can form select groups of people of great economic and political influence.
- It benefits from capitalist economic activity.
- It establishes the differences between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
Meaning of Proletariat
The proletariat is called the social class made up of the workers and laborers who, having neither property nor the means of production, which are in the hands of the bourgeoisie, must sell their labor power in exchange for a salary in order to survive.
There is an urban proletariat , concentrated in the cities, linked to industrial activities, and a rural proletariat , which is dedicated to agricultural work.
According to Marxist theory , the proletariat is a social class typical of the capitalist economic system that is exploited by the bourgeois, owner of the means of production and wealth.
At certain moments in history, the proletariat has raised its voice, and demanded and won demands and better working conditions. On occasions, he has even made the revolution and seized political power, according to the story of the creation of the Soviet Union (USSR) and the revolution of 1917 .
The word proletariat, as such, dates from ancient Rome , and is derived from the Latin proletarĭus . He was referring to that poor citizen who only with his offspring, that is, with his descendants, could serve the State by providing men for the army. Bourgeoisie and Proletariat definition
In the 19th century, with the industrial revolution , the proletariat came to be identified as the class that did not possess the means of production or own property, and that, therefore, was forced to work for the bourgeoisie in exchange for A salary.
Proletariat and bourgeoisie
The bourgeoisie is the social class that owns the means of production, owns businesses, shops and land. In this sense, it would come to be the social class opposed to the proletariat , which are the workers, who only have their labor power, who sell to the capitalist in exchange for a wage for subsistence. According to the theory of the class struggle of Karl Marx , the bourgeoisie is the exploiter of the proletariat.
With the introduction of ideas in defense of the proletariat, the two-party political system that emerged after the French Revolution undergoes a transformation in the representation of the two major parties: from aristocrats and bourgeoisie to bourgeoisie and proletariat.
The lumpenproletariat is called the class that is below the proletariat and, as such, constitutes the last stratum of the social pyramid. It differs from the proletariat in that, unlike the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat lacks class consciousness. Bourgeoisie and Proletariat definition