Kublai Khan was a character who knew how to leave the past behind and formed a true Chinese empire . His intentions were to extend his domain to the limits. His work was supported by his personality which faded with him. This character managed to stand out in history thanks to the fact that he extended the borders of his empire, conquering most of the Chinese territory and establishing himself as its emperor . When was Kublai Khan born?
He was really an important character in history, who left an indelible mark on the China that he himself conquered, becoming the difference between previous and later emperors.
Who was Kublai Khan?
He was the last Mongol emperor . He managed to conquer much of China by establishing himself as king of this country, which made him the first Mongol to rule as emperor over China . He established the Yuan dynasty and is considered the greatest ruler of this dynasty. Furthermore, he was the first Mongolian emperor to convert to Buddhism .
Biography of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan was born on September 23, AD 1215. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan , a conqueror and warrior who managed to unite nomadic tribes in North Asia, founding the Mongol Empire . In 1252 his brother Mangu (Mongka) placed him in command of an army that controlled the eastern part of the empire. When was Kublai Khan born?
He expanded the borders of the empire, conquering a large part of China and becoming king of this country. After the death of his brother Mangu, in 1260 he received the appointment of Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. However, to stay in power, he had a tough fight until 1264 against his other brother, in 1267 against the seditious Mongols of Turkestan and Manchuria in 1277.
Later, he maintained continuous campaigns to expand his dominions , succeeding in southern China , succeeding in destroying the Sung kingdom and unifying China in 1279. However, he failed in his attempts and desires to conquer Japan.
He came to differentiate himself from his ancestors by disapproving of useless slaughter and demanding that his generals always behave in moderation. It is possible that this attitude of Kublai was influenced by his deep interest in the ideals of Confucian philosophy and government. Although he led China to economic prosperity, unity and social stability, during his life he had to face various family disputes.
Kublai Khan’s reign
After being elected Great Khan in 1260, he transferred his Mongolian capital to Beijing . There he reigned as Emperor of China and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which spanned from Asia to Eastern Europe. His reign was characterized by great prosperity in the country, reaching the highest point of power in the Mongol Empire. When was Kublai Khan born?
There was much improvement in communications and the trade routes of Central Asia were made much safer . This favored trade from the West to the East. Although he was a Buddhist, he showed respect and tolerance for the other religions of his empire. As a lover of the arts and sciences, he defended them. He sought the guidance of the Arab, Persian, European and Chinese sages in everything related to administrative and spiritual matters.
He made a reorganization of the Chinese administration , divided the territory into provinces and established a division of social classes. The ruling class was made up of rulers and owners, merchants and officials were of foreign origin. The petty bourgeoisie was made up mostly of North Chinese and Koreans and the masses of South China without rights. When was Kublai Khan born?
During his reign he received visits from Europeans, as was the case with Marco Polo , who received positions and honors. Fascinated by the prosperity and vastness of China, he wrote about the greatness of the Mongol Empire and its emperor. He described the Great Khan and Chinese Emperor Kublai as the most powerful ruler in the world, with unprecedented people, goods and lands.
After the arrival of merchants and missionaries, new techniques, ideas, medicines and foods emerged . However, although Kublai Khan strove to extend the dominance of the Mongol empire to Japan, his attempts failed. In any case, his government was marked by prosperity.
Kublai Khan campaigns
Kublai Khan carried out a series of campaigns to expand his domains, among which are:
- Campaign of Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine during the years 1255 to 1260.
- Conquest of the Chinese Song empire in 1267-1279.
- Invasion attempts in Japan in 1274 and 1281 in which it failed.
- Invasions of Vietnam carried out between 1257 and 1287.
- Burma in 1277.
- Java in the year 1293.
In his later years he suffered from gout (the most painful arthritis) . His illness was exacerbated after suffering the loss of his wife and son, causing him depression. Emperor Kublai Khan died on February 18, 1294 at the age of 78. After his death, a series of natural disasters and infighting occurred that contributed to the division of the western part of the empire. Progressively the Yuan dynasty was weakened , which disappeared in 1368. When was Kublai Khan born?
Discovery of the Kublai Khan palace
Today, during the excavation of the museum of the palace of Beijing, known as the Forbidden City, archaeologists found clues of what could be the palace of Kublai Khan . After due investigation, they claimed to have concrete evidence pointing to the discovery of this lost empire of the powerful Mongol ruler Kublai.
A total of four foundation layers were found in the excavations, beginning with the Qing dynasty palace . Below this layer is the palace of the Ming dynasty, followed by the first Ming palace and finally the Yuan palace of Emperor Kublai Khan below the previous palaces.
This discovery is very important since it is the only remainder of the Yuan dynasty that exists in the enclosure, since the other buildings of that time were removed before the construction of the Forbidden City began. When was Kublai Khan born?