The most important personage in the Roman Empire was without a doubt, Julius Caesar, who stood out for his brilliant political career. During his life he achieved significant achievements that today denote his influence at the time. When was Julius Caesar born?
He dedicated his life to fulfilling his firm political and military purposes, leaving him as one of the most influential figures in the history of Rome , for his broad vision as head of the Roman State.
Who was Julius Caesar?
His name was Gaius Julius Caesar, he was born in 100 BC in Rome and died on March 15, 44 BC also in Rome. He was a Roman politician and military man in the 1st century BC. C. was a member of the patricians Julio Césares. He managed to reach the highest magistracies of the Roman State, in addition to dominating the politics of the Republic. This he achieved after winning the civil war , where he faced the most conservative sector of the Senate.
Julius Caesar’s Family
His family nucleus was made up of the following way:
- Father: Gaius Julius Caesar.
- Mother: Aurelia.
- Cornelia from 84 a. C until 68 a. C.
- Pompeii from 68 a. Until 63 a. C.
- Calpurnia from 59 a. C. until 44 a. C.
- Children: Julia and Augusto who was his adopted son. When was Julius Caesar born?
His father was a praetorian senator , retired from politics for a provincial government in Asia. Of his mother Aurelia is known that he was a member of the Aurelios Cotas and belonged to a prominent family of the plebeian nobility . Within the family of Julio César there were many relatives who participated in politics, which was a great help for the aspirations of the young man.
With whom he had a close relationship that prompted him in his political beginnings, it was with Cayo Mario, who got to marry Julia, who was Julius Caesar’s maternal aunt.
Julius Caesar Characteristics
Apart from his political and military skills, Julius Caesar was known for being an excellent speaker and writer. It is known that he wrote a treatise on astronomy, another on Roman republican religion and a study on Latin. Also featured in his work Commentary on the Gallic War and Commentary on the Civil War. When was Julius Caesar born?
His personality could be described as: impulsive, ambitious, generous and as a determined and subtle person. He had a vast and refined culture, knew very well the philosophical doctrines of both politics and the history of great eastern empires. He had an exceptional memory, which facilitated his fondness for linguistic and grammatical problems.
Marriages of Julius Caesar
He got married three times , the first was with Cornelia, daughter of Lucio Cornelio Cinna, who was from the Patrician family. Cinna was Mario’s supporter and Lucio Cornelio Sila’s enemy. With this marriage Julius Caesar always kept rubbing shoulders with the main leaders of Rome. During this marriage a daughter was born who was named Julia and Cornelia died after giving birth.
Julius Caesar remarries Pompeii , who was Sila’s granddaughter and came from a consular family. He divorced her shortly after, for being involved in a scandal during the Bona Dea celebrations. The third and last marriage of Julio César was with Calpurnia who was the daughter of Lucio Calpurnia Pisón Cesonino, who was a prominent member of the Senate.
Julius Caesar’s beginnings in politics
In the year 84 a. C with only 16 years Cinna appointed him from Flamen Dialis which is a very popular religious position. This charge was revoked since he had problems with Cinna for having married his daughter, for which he was forced to flee to avoid the dictator’s hitmen. Then he forgave him, since his mother‘s relatives interceded for him. But he was transferred to the province of Asia where he fought in Mytilene as a legacy of Marco Minucio Termo . When was Julius Caesar born?
He returns to Rome after the death of Sila, where he practiced law, replacing his uncle Cayo Aurelio Cota as pontiff. This position helped him to relate to the consuls Crassus and Pompey, allowing him to launch his own political career . Then he served as a quaestor and councilor, during the performance of this magistracy he offered shows that were remembered for a long time.
Stages of Julius Caesar’s rise to power
Already fully immersed in politics, he achieves his aspirations in the following phases:
The Roman Triumvirate
The next position that Julius Caesar held was that of consul , which was not easy for him since the aristocratic sector did not want a person like Julius Caesar to obtain said power. This was because they knew very well the intentions of Julius Caesar and what it would affect the sector. Despite this, in 59 BC he managed to obtain the consulate, and enraged the aristocratic sector who began to promote laws to limit Caesar.
His intentions were to show society that Julius Caesar was a criminal, a revolutionary. But strategically, Julio got alliances with Pompey and Crassus and created the first triumvirate , which was only the first step to end the Roman Republic.
In the year 59 a. C. Julius Caesar receives the government of the transalpine and Illyrian Gaul that he maintained for about five years. In addition to this, Cisalpine Gaul also ruled after Quintus Cecilius Metellus died. This opened up to Julius Caesar all the possibilities to enrich himself with the provinces that he had under his command and at the same time take advantage of all the movements of the Helvetians in the Gallic territory. When was Julius Caesar born?
The Gallic War begins in 58 BC. C until the year 51 a. C. During the campaigns reached reach Germany and the British Isles, but not with intentions of conquest. During this war he defeated the Helvetii, Venetians and Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia.
Start of the civil war
In view of the growing political situation in Rome caused by the enmity between Pompey and Crassus, Julius Caesar summoned his allies in Lucca, where it was agreed that both would present themselves as consuls and that they would give Caesar 5 more years in the position of proconsul. All this agreement changed when in the year 54 a. C Julia, the daughter of Caesar, who had married Pompey, dies, which broke their agreements.
Later, in the year 53 a. C Crassus died in the battle of Carrhae against the Parthians. This act increased tensions in Rome, for his part, Pompey got closer to the conservative sector , issued an edict where he demanded that Julius Caesar should leave the magistracy and respond to a series of accusations. Rome entered a State of Emergency, thus Pompey obtained all the powers to eliminate Caesar. When was Julius Caesar born?
During the years 49 to 47 a. C Caesar and Pompey faced the fight for the power of Rome, managing to win Julius Caesar in each one of the areas of the Empire . The campaign in Hispania was very significant since it was where the vast majority of Pompey’s troops were. In view of this, Pompey went to Egypt where Ptolemy XIII beheaded him. This act enraged Julius Caesar who actively intervened in Egyptian politics.
He receives the appointment of Roman dictator
After this, he supported the ascent of Cleopatra to the throne , in addition to initiating a relationship with her from which Ptolemy XV was born, known in Roman society as Caesarion, although he was never recognized by Caesar. In the year 46 a. C went to Africa to face Pompey’s last troops.
Then he arrived in Rome, where he received the appointment of the Senate as Dictator in a period of 10 years . During this time he focused on calming social problems and gaining the trust of his troops by compensating them with money and land.
Conspiracy and death of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar died on March 15, 44 BC. C in the Senate, being the victim of a conspiracy that was orchestrated by a group of senators. Among these were Marco Junio Bruto, Cayo Casio and Décimo Juno, along with dozens of people called Liberators. All of these took advantage of the Ides of March to begin attacking Julius Caesar with several blows and stabs.
He received a total of 23 stabs, but fought to the end as he managed to hit Marco Bruto in the thigh with an awl. His death resulted in another civil war where supporters of the Caesar regime managed to defeat their assassins. When was Julius Caesar born?
Julius Caesar was characterized by being determined in his goals , since throughout his life he did not rest until he achieved his goals. All his exploits significantly influenced his time.