It could be said that the morpheme is the variable part of a word, which is composed, from the grammatical point of view, by morphemes and lexemes. The morpheme provides the grammatical value and is always associated with the lexeme, which has semantic value. Both the morpheme and the lexeme can be decomposed into phonemes, the minimal units of phonology that have no meaning (either grammatical or semantic).
Among morphemes, several types can be distinguished according to the way they are attached to the word. The independent morphemes or clitic morphemes are those that admit a certain phonological independence with respect to the lexeme (such as prepositions, conjunctions and determiners).
Dependent morphemes or linked morphemes, on the other hand, are always linked to another moneme to complete their meaning. There are two subtypes of dependent morphemes: derivatives (which add nuances to meaning and act in different semantic fields) and inflections (indicate accidents and grammatical relationships).
Derivative dependent morphemes, on the other hand, can be classified into prefixes (they are preceded to the lexeme), infixes (they have no semantic content) or suffixes (they are postponed to the lexeme).
The morpheme is the minimum unit of morphological analysis, since it cannot be decomposed into minor morphological signs (yes, phonological).
- Some authors identify the concept of morpheme with that of moneme.
Definition Types of morphemes with examples
- There are two definitions proposed for this unit:
- Minimum significant unit
- Minimum grammatical unit
- All words are made up of morphemes.
- Morphemes cannot be broken down into meaningful minor elements.
- The same morpheme can be part of different words, although its meaning or function is always the same.
- The same morpheme can be made in different phonetic forms. These realizations of the same morpheme are called allomorphs. Types of morphemes with examples
Child forms the plural in children, with the morpheme -s; flower forms the plural in flowers, with the morpheme -es; the morphemes -s and -es are allomorphs of the plural inflectional morpheme.
Lexical morphemes (lexemes) Types of morphemes with examples
- Not all authors consider this category as a morpheme, but rather as a lexical morpheme.
- The list of lexical morphemes is open because new words or new meanings can be incorporated into the language at any time.
- The lexical morpheme is the one that provides the fundamental semantic content of the word.
- It is the base on which other morphemes (of a grammatical nature) can be added.
- A free morpheme is one that forms the word itself, such as flower, light, sea, truck or clock.
- A locked (or linked) morpheme is one that appears alongside other morphemes, such as flourish, illuminate, truck or clock.
Grammatical morphemes Types of morphemes with examples
The list of grammatical morphemes is closed, that is, it has a finite number of forms.
- They can be gender and number in nouns, adjectives, determiners and some pronouns.
- In child the lexical morpheme is niñ-, and the inflectional morpheme is -o- (gender, masculine).
- In girl the lexical morpheme is niñ-, and the inflectional morpheme is -a- (gender, feminine).
- In children the lexical morpheme is niñ-, and the inflectional morphemes are -o- (of gender, masculine) and -s (of number, plural).
- In girls the lexical morpheme is niñ-, and the inflectional morphemes are -a- (of gender, feminine) and -s (of number, plural). Types of morphemes with examples
- In verbs, of number, person, time, mood and aspect.
- In we loved the lexical morpheme is am-, and the inflectional morphemes are -á- (indicates that it is the first conjugation), -ba- (indicates the past tense aspect and the indicative mood) and -mos (indicates that it is about of the first person plural).
They provide a tint of meaning although their contribution is above all grammatical (suffixes, for example, often change the category of the word to which they are added). The elements that belong to this category are affixes, which in turn are formed, among others, by prefixes, suffixes and interfixes.
A derivative morpheme contains suffix or prefix but sometimes there is a prefix suffix and there is also an inflectional morpheme. Types of morphemes with examples