Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics

Types of articulation disorders/definition/causes/features

Speech/articulation disorders

speech is one of the most powerful factors and stimuli for a child’s development. This is due to the exceptional role it plays in human life. Through speech, people communicate thoughts, desires, convey their life experiences, coordinate actions. It serves as the main means of communication between people. At the same time, speech is a necessary basis for thinking and its tool. Cognitive operations (analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, abstraction and others) develop and improve in the process of mastering speech. The general intellectual development depends on the level of speech development. Speech acts as a means of regulating mental activity and behavior, organizes emotional experiences. The development of speech has a great influence on the formation of personality, volitional qualities, character, attitudes, beliefs. Types of articulation disorders  

Speech disorder – deviations in the speaker’s speech from the linguistic norm, adopted in a given linguistic environment.

Articulation disorders are characterized by the following features:

  1. They do not correspond to the age of the speaker.
  2. They are not dialectisms, illiteracy of speech and expression of ignorance of the language;
  3. Associated with deviations in the functioning of the psychophysiological mechanisms of speech;
  4. Are stable and do not disappear on their own;
  5. They often have a negative impact on the further mental development of the child;
  6. They require a certain speech therapy impact, depending on their nature.

Causes of articulation disorders:

  • somatic weakness;
  • retarded psychophysical development;
  • burdened heredity, trauma;
  • improper structure of the organs of the speech apparatus;
  • inattention to the speech development of children at a young age;
  • bilingualism in the family, etc.

Types of articulation disorders Types of articulation disorders

1-Phonemic disorder (FN)

 due to insufficient formation of phonemic hearing, the child does not hear the difference between sounds and pronounces them incorrectly. (Sensory speech impairment).

The low level of phonemic perception in life is expressed in the following:

  • Lack of recognition by ear of sounds in one’s own and someone else’s speech
  • Violation of mental actions for sound analysis and word synthesis.

2-Phonetic disorder (dyslalia) Types of articulation disorders

is a violation of articulatory motor skills or insufficient formation of articulatory motor skills. The child cannot correctly perform movements with the organs of articulation, especially the tongue, as a result of which the sound is distorted. (Motor speech disorder). However, the speech of children undergoes changes in the process of development of the child: for example, at the age of 3 years, the absence of sounds p, l, w, z is not a deviation in speech development, but an age norm. In speech therapy practice, there is a term – age-related dyslalia. Therefore, when you get acquainted with the medical records of children under 4 – 4.5 years old, you will come across this very term. Types of articulation disorders

3-Phonetic-phonemic underdevelopment (FFN)

 is a violation of the processes of formation of the pronunciation system of the language (sound pronunciation) in children with various speech disorders due to impaired perception and pronunciation of phonemes. This category includes children with normal hearing and intelligence.

Disadvantages of pronunciation in practice are manifested in the following:

  • Replacing the sound with a simpler articulation
  • Unstable use of sound in speech
  • Distorted pronunciation of sound

   The child may have impaired pronunciation of 1 sound or several.

 All these children receive assistance in the framework of a general education kindergarten.

4-Children with general speech underdevelopment (OHP)

are often found, that is, children who have impaired both sound pronunciation and lexical and grammatical structure of speech. These children often construct sentences, use endings incorrectly, and experience difficulties in inflection and word formation. In some cases (extremely rarely), children may have sound pronunciation, phonemic hearing, and only the lexical and grammatical structure of speech is impaired. This group includes children in whom OHP occurs against the background of bilingualism. Types of articulation disorders

5-Stuttering Types of articulation disorders

is a violation of the tempo-rhythmic side of speech, which is characterized by stuttering when pronouncing the first sound of a word or by an intermittent speech flow. This disorder does not include those hitch and breakdowns in the rhythm of speech that are possible in normally speaking. The main differences are in the feeling of muscle tension in the stutter, loss of control over the speech organs. Types of articulation disorders

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