Neolithic age time period characteristics stages and population
The Prehistory was almost dominated by the use of stone as the main element or work material, but the same time using this material evolved to the point achieved an improvement of everyday tools and weapons. In this article we will provide you information about the Neolithic age time period.
For this reason, in this article we will talk about the Neolithic period , since this was a period where the stone was strengthened and, therefore, improved in different areas of life, such as agriculture and hunting.
What is the Neolithic?
When we speak of Neolithic we refer to the last stage of the Stone Age , (remember that first there was the Paleolithic , then the Mesolithic and lastly the Neolithic ); and before the Metal Age .
In this period there was a great development of livestock , agriculture and also the domestication of animals .
This period is located between 8,000 BC and 3,000 BC where man had already been forced to change his lifestyle and adopt a sedentary style . As man develops his creativity and also his ability to design tools and other inventions , he develops mentally and culturally, which allows him to become known as Homo-sapiens , or as he is also known, man of the world. Cro-Magnon.
This name is attributed to it because skulls of men who lived in that period were found in a French cave.
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Among some of the characteristics that we can mention from this period of prehistory, are the following:
- This was the period where polished stone is known and widely used in hunting tools and other jobs such as cattle ranching and agriculture, as well as making cloth.
- It is achieved domesticate animals to serve to work on livestock and agriculture, especially for plowing. In addition, they served as means of transport and protectors of the villages.
- The textile industry developed , through which a variety of clothing of both animal origin (fur, wool, etc.) and vegetable origin was created that served in different types of climates.
- Herding developed at this time.
- Pottery saw its origin in order to create containers that served to collect the product of agriculture.
- Mortars began to be used to crush the cereal and obtain flour.
- As the creation of villages had become popular, communication between these villages developed .
The Neolithic can be divided into 3 stages:
- INITIAL Neolithic : This extends from 6,000 to 3,500 BC
- MIDDLE Neolithic : This stage is located between 3,000 and 2,800 BC and was very productive.
- FINAL Neolithic : This is located between 2,800 and 2,300 BC after which the well-known Metal Age begins .
As we mentioned earlier, the man who lived in this stage of history became known as Homo-sapiens and this is due to all the development or advancement that humanity had in this period of time . Among these changes or advances that man achieved, we can mention the fact that he stops being nomadic and permanently settles in regions, managing to build towns and villages.
In addition, it manages to develop stronger and more durable tools with polished stone, it works the field through agriculture and with the help of domesticated animals it manages to transport everything it produces more easily and on a larger scale, thus contributing to trade. All these changes laid the foundations for a future society more developed and evolved in areas such as clothing, food and security . On the other hand, the human being in this period achieves what is known as the Neolithic revolution, which was a state or level achieved due to climatic factors, lifestyle and work performed.
In the Neolithic, man already has a totally sedentary lifestyle , so he concentrates on building better quality homes and larger populations and close to places that allow them to get food more easily and quickly , such as rivers or open fields.
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In this period, the type of art that was used in the Mesolithic period ceased to be worked and a more abstract and profound theme was printed on it, which represents a great change in the manifestations of prehistoric art.
Now the themes or scenes describe, for example, hunts carried out in the open air by members of the village, which came to be known as cave painting . Some of these specimens were discovered in western Europe.
In addition, in Latin America Neolithic works of art have been discovered, which came to be known as zooliths, anthropolites and ornitholites, which consisted of figures made in stone of animals and men .
The economy of this period was based mainly on cattle ranching and agriculture, very little on hunting. However, a type of communication between populations developed that came to be known as transhumance, which contributed greatly to the development of agricultural and livestock techniques in other regions . On the other hand, different foods were grown, such as wheat, cereals, corn and rice, plantations that began to grow and be commercialized. In addition, the domestication of animals such as dogs and later horses, sheep, donkeys, among others, contributed a lot to the transport of the time.
Among the tools invented by man it is necessary to include weapons, which served not only to hunt animals, but also to defend against attacks from other populations , since of course rivalry arose. In this same sense, polished stone played an important role in the creation of these weapons, since it allowed to create spears, sickles and mills of greater hardness and resistance.
On the other hand, the tools created in this period of history contributed enormously to the development of techniques such as pottery, ceramics and weaving . With all these everyday tools, the man was able to live quietly and specialize in the jobs that allowed him to develop his economy.