Discourse

Critical Linguistics and Discourse analysis

Critical Linguistics with explanation

Critical Linguistics

Critical Linguistics is a current of Discourse Analysis created by Gunther Kress, Anthony Trew, Robert Hodge and Roger Fowler in the late 70s in response to the hegemony exercised within the studies of
language for formal linguisticsThe authors who nucleated under that name claimed the study of the language in use from a perspective functionalist (Newmeyer, 1998) that took into account the links between language, thought and society. Among its references included authors as Whorf (1956), Halliday (1975, 1978) and Foucault (1969, 1970, 1975). This theoretical current went through several modifications since the end of the decade of 80, going on to call itself Critical Analysis of the Speech (Hodge and Kress, 1993) and Social Semiotics (Hodge and Kress, 1988; Hodge, 2016; Kress, 2010). However, we consider that his study and criticism have a current relevance
For at least two reasons: one) In his latest book, Robert Hodge (2016) redoubled the bet regarding
to the use of Chomskian theory in studies of the language in use. He even explained his intention to make a synthesis between the proposals Theorists of Halliday and Chomsky.) Although Critical Linguistics is a theoretical current of the 70s that It mutated a lot since then, there is a very prolific Latin America branch of discourse analysis that uses the tools proposed by its two more widespread works Language and Control (Fowler, Hodge, Kress and Trew, 1993) and Language as Ideology (Hodge and Kress, 1979) and that continues applying the Chomskian concepts of “transformation” and “basic form” or “deep structure” to the analyzes of the language in use (Carbó, 2001; Szretter
Noste, 2008; Zullo, 2008, 2016; Dvoskin, Flax, Martinez Romagosa, Testoni and Zukerfeld, 2018) 2Therefore, in this work, we propose to problematize the use of Chomskian concept of “transformation” by the first works of l Critical Linguistics, in addition to accounting for the imprecision with which it is applied

Robert Hodge

Robert Hodge is an Australian academic, author, theoretician and critic.

Although best known as a semiotic and critical linguist, his work encompasses a wide interdisciplinary range of fields that include cultural theory, media studies, chaos theory,  Marxism, psychoanalysis, postcolonialism and postmodernism.

He is currently a professor at the University of Western Sydney.

Born in Perth, Western Australia in 1940, Hodge studied English at the University of Western Australia, and graduated with first class honors in 1961. He went to Cambridge University in 1965 with a scholarship and earned a BA in 1967 and a PhD in 1972 in intellectual history. From then on, his professional career as a professor and later professor took him to the University of East Anglia, Norwich 1972-1977, Murdoch University, Perth from 1977-1993 and the University of Western Sydney since 1993.

His line of research has taken him from studies in ancient Greek and literature, to linguistics, to semiotics, and to a series of topics around cultural, media, social and political criticism. Hodge’s increasingly interdisciplinary approach has grown to include history, chaos theory, critical management studies, aboriginal and other problems. Of his twenty-five published books, the best known include ‘Social Semiotics’, ‘Language as Ideology’ and ‘Myths of Oz’. Other results include numerous articles published in magazines and speeches at international conferences.

The Critical Linguistics model

proposes to analyze the coded representations of the world
in language in terms of processes and participants . The processes are the actions proper, represented by verbs . The participants are the subjects or objects
They relate through the process.
The two models are:
•  Actional: they pose an action that can be performed by one participant and affect another
competitor.
•  Relational: They propose a relationship between two entities

There are two models that coexist in the representation of the world that is carried out through language The first model is the power model . This model has Three variants To analyze texts Hodge and Kress divide the sentences (to which they call “clauses”) in three types, which have to do with the number of participants of the action and the type of process involved. By process they refer to the action of verb, while the participants of that action are what syntax means as subject (agent of the action) and direct object (affected by the action). Do not However, there are times when the grammatical subject does not match the semantic.

Transactive processes are those in which the action passes from an actor to an affected different from the first. The prototypical clause of this model would have the form X affects Y . It is about Usually from physical processes. Examples: Juan broke the glass; the police repressed the protesters•  Non-transactive processes are those that indicate action, but where there is only one entity affected in the process ( X does ) or, in any case, where actor and affected cannot be differentiated ( X affects X ). Examples: Juan runs. There was repression. The distinction between transactions and non-transactions is important.transactive because it shows if the writer or speaker may be hiding certain Responsibilities of the actions he is narrating. The pseudo-transactive processes comprise all the dicendi verbs , as well as those of psychological experimentation In general, in the pseudo transitive processes the first entity does not behaves as a voluntary agent of the action, but may have another thematic role(experimenter, beneficiary). They are clauses in which it seems that there are two participants, but for the There is only one sense. Example: He sings a song, she dances a tango, the spider works her web, he took out the jacket.

The second model posed by critical linguistics is the model relational . In this scheme the two affected entities only expressA relationship between them. The prototypical model clause would be X is Y .

Relational clauses are divided into:•  Attributive: they share a participant with an attribute: Lionel Messi is happy.•  Possessive: they place a participant in relation to a possession:Lionel Messi has a lot of money.•  Equatives : they give a definition about a person, they share entities at the same level: Mauricio Macri is the president.•  Locative: the participant is related to a place: Mauricio Macri isin La Plata.

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