Morphology

Archaisms with its types and examples in detail

Archaisms

Archaisms are those words and linguistic formulas in disuse within a language, which come from past eras and forms of speech, but which still remain in the language in very specific contexts. In other words, they are outdated forms of language , which remain as relics in a language. Archaisms with its types and examples

Linguistic archaism is that found in the use of the language in a certain place, where there are phonetic, morphological, syntactic and lexical features that are conservative and ancient in the language.

Literary archaism is that found in literary works, often used as a style resource to make the text more solemn, cultured, decadent, etc. They consist of the use of expressions typical of the time to which the literary text refers, but which are no longer used at the time the text was written. When speaking of a naturally ancient text, therefore, the archaisms found are not purposeful, as they are expressions proper to the time when it was written

When we speak of technical or scientific language, archaism consists of a construction that has already fallen into disuse, and that, therefore, impairs the understanding of the text. The custom of using outdated expressions in the text should be avoided, as it may compromise the clarity of the text for a reader who does not have the necessary historical knowledge to recover the meaning of such terms.

Words that are usual today for us, in the future will inevitably become archaisms, and those that exist today were formerly usual words. This happens naturally due to the process of evolution of the language, due to it modified by the speakers themselves over time.

They also count as archaisms certain meanings of words still in use but with another meaning, that is, certain meanings that were lost in time, although the words are still in use with a contemporary meaning.

The archaisms, in any case, can continue to be used but they are very rare and sometimes persist in very specific areas , such as the literary language. In this sense, the use of innovative and modern formulas is always preferred, since language is a living organism and in a constant process of updating.

Types of archaisms

There are two types of archaisms, depending on how frequent its use is still. This is because the same language can vary enormously depending on geography , and what is considered extinct in one place is still in use in another. Thus, we must distinguish: Archaisms with its types and examples

  • Absolute archaisms , those ancient words and twists that are not commonly used in any community speaking the same language, that is, that have lagged absolutely behind in the course of the language.
  • Relative archaisms , those ancient words and turns that have disappeared only from some geographical variants of the language, but persist in others, and therefore remain relatively valid.

Examples of Archaisms

Archaism Meaning Today
afore before
agone ago
alack expression of regret
anon at once
aright right
avaunt away
aye yes
betwixt between
certes certainly
eft again
eke also
erewhile until now
fie expression of disapproval
fore earlier
forsooth indeed
forthwith immediately
hark to listen

Archaisms with its types and examples

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