Battle of Ayacucho
One of the last war conflicts between pro-independence and Spanish. When was the battle of Ayacucho
|Date||December 9, 1824.|
|Belligerents||Independents vs. Spanish people.|
|Outcome||Victory of the independentistas.|
The battle of Ayacucho was one of the last great war conflicts between the independentists of the Upper Peru region and the Spanish. This was carried out in 1824, in Peru, and it meant the end of Spanish domination over South America.
It was fought on December 9, 1824, in the town of Pampa de Quinua, Huamanga province in Ayacucho, Peru, between the liberating army and the Spanish royalists .
The importance of the Battle of Ayacucho lies in the fact that it was the last great battle for the Independence of South America, that is, it promoted the definitive eradication of the Spanish army in the territory. In particular, this battle defined the Independence of Peru .
Causes and consequences of the battle of Ayacucho
In the years prior to the battle of Ayacucho, the conflicts in the Spanish Crown of Fernando VII due to the new laws, generated a decrease in military reinforcements throughout the American continent, which prevented maintaining good lines of defense and control of the claims. of independence of the American peoples.
In addition, in the late 18th century , the United States achieved independence from Great Britain, which served as a stimulus for independence from the rest of America.
By 1824, several American colonies had declared their independence from Spain and triumphed on the battlefield over the dwindling Spanish army. This prompted the independence army of Peru to follow the movement in their territories.
Likewise, the appointment of José de la Serna as viceroy of Peru, by Fernando VII of Spain, generated much discomfort in the Spanish troops settled in the viceroyalty and caused the uprising of General Olañeta, which caused two royalist sides to confront each other. yes, weakening said army and giving rise to wars for independence.
The main consequences of the Battle of Ayacucho were the following:
- The surrender of the royalist army and the capture of Viceroy José de la Serna , who was disposed of as a prisoner.
- The capitulation of Ayacucho was signed, which led to the Independence of Peru and put an end to the viceroyalty of Peru .
- After the demonstration of the people not to join the Congress of Peru or the United Provinces of Río de la Plata, the reorganization of Upper Peru took place . This gave rise to the birth of the Bolivarian Republic or Bolivia, which honored Simón Bolívar as the father of the country .
Protagonists of the battle of Ayacucho
Among the protagonists of the battle of Ayacucho we can highlight the following:
- Antonio José de Sucre (1795 – 1830): Venezuelan, known as the Grand Marshal of Ayacucho, was the strategist who guided the battle that would seal the Independence of Peru.
- General Agustín Gamarra (1785 – 1841): Peruvian politician and military man who fought in the battle of Ayacucho and became president of Peru twice.
- General Guillermo Miller (1795 – 1861): Englishman who participated in the battle of Junín and Ayacucho, and developed a good part of his military life in South America, supporting independence.
- Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770 – 1832): county of the Andes, he was the commander-in-chief of the royalist army.
- General José de Canterac (1787 – 1835): royalist chief of staff, who signed the capitulation of his army together with Marshal Sucre.