Taylorism is a system of industrial organization developed by Frederick Taylor , an American economist and mechanical engineer. The main objective of this technique is to optimize the tasks performed in companies , through the organization and division of workers’ functions. Characteristics of Taylorism
The basic ideas that underlie Taylor’s theory were published in the book Principles of Public Administration , in 1911, where he presented the system of rationalization of work – each process of this should be studied and developed as a science.
The creation of Taylorism is the result of the Second Industrial Revolution, with the emergence of electrical energy, the replacement of iron by steel, and the use of oil instead of steam as fuel. Characteristics of Taylorism
Taylorism is based on five basic principles:
- Replacing experience-based methods with scientifically tested methodologies;
- The selection and training of workers, in order to discover their best skills, which must be continually improved;
- Continuous supervision of work;
- The execution of tasks based on discipline and respect, in order to avoid waste;
- Fractionation of work on the assembly line. Characteristics of Taylorism
Unlike the organizational systems applied until then, Taylorism differs because of the more specific functions of workers.
Another differential of this model is the positive motivation that the company gave to its employees, that is, the higher the company’s productivity, the higher the worker’s salary. Until the 19th century, fear was the main “motivation” of the worker, who worked for fear of being fired.
Characteristics of Taylorism
- Achieve maximum production and yield, with minimum time and effort;
- Division of work tasks; Characteristics of Taylorism
- Specialized worker;
- Investment in worker preparation and training, according to the skills presented;
- Prioritizes the reduction of employee fatigue;
- Prioritizes the improvement of employees’ working conditions;
- System of salary incentives and rewards in order to motivate workers to enhance their productivity;
- Application of previously tested, approved and planned work methods, thus dispensing with improvisation.
Difference between Taylorism and Fordism
Like Taylorism, Fordism also consists of a system of organizing industrial production.
However, the main objective of the theory created by Henry Ford (1863 – 1947) was the construction of a model of mass production , making the products cheaper and consumed by a greater number of people.
Unlike the bonus system that emerged with Taylorism, in Fordism the employee received little qualification and had no “rewards” for the company’s productivity growth. Characteristics of Taylorism