What is Peripheral Devices Types and Examples

Peripheral Devices

Peripheral devices are any auxiliary devices that connect and work with the computer to place information or get information from it.

In summary: Peripheral devices are external components or devices connected to a computer or other main device to aid its function or provide input/output. They complement the capabilities of the main device, allowing users to interact with the system and perform different tasks. Here are some common examples of peripheral devices:

  1. Keyboard: Allows input of alphanumeric data and commands to the computer.
  2. Mouse: Provides a way to control the on-screen cursor and interact with graphical elements.
  3. Monitor: Displays computer output information such as text, images and videos.
  4. Printer: Allows the physical output of documents, images or other digital content on paper.
  5. Scanner: Allows you to scan documents and images, converting them into digital format.
  6. Speakers: Produce audio for playback of sounds, music, and other media.
  7. Microphone: Captures user audio and converts it into digital signals for recording or broadcast.
  8. Webcam: Captures images and videos in real time for video calls, conferences or recordings.
  9. External Storage Devices: These include external hard disk drives, pen drives and memory cards, which provide additional space for storing data.
  10. Joystick/Gamepad: Mainly used in games, they allow players to control characters and interact with game elements.
  11. Barcode Scanner: Used in commercial environments to scan and record product information.
  12. Modem: Allows you to connect to the Internet through a phone line, cable, or wireless technology.
  13. Card Reader: Used to read information from magnetic cards such as credit cards or ID cards.
  14. Heart rate monitor: Used in physical activities to monitor a person’s heart rate.
  15. MIDI controller: Used in music production to control virtual instruments or record music tracks.

These are just a few examples of peripheral devices, but there are many others available, each with its specific function and contribution to the efficient use of computer systems.

A peripheral device may also be referred to as an external peripheral, integrated peripheral, auxiliary component, or I/O (input/output) device. Now let’s get into the details about peripherals.

What are Peripherals?

Generally, the word peripheral is used to refer to a device external to the computer, such as a digitizer, but devices that are physically located  inside  the computer are technically peripherals as well.

Peripheral devices add functionality to the computer, but are not part of the “core” group of components such as the CPU, motherboard, and power supply.

However, although they are often not directly involved with the main function of a computer, this does not mean that they are not considered necessary components.

What defines a peripheral device?

For example, a desktop-style computer monitor isn’t technically helpful with computing and isn’t necessary for the computer to turn on and run programs, but it is necessary to actually use it.

Another way to think about peripheral devices is that they don’t function as standalone devices. The only way they work is when they are connected and controlled by the computer.

In relation to the best known are: the keyboard, the mouse, the joystick, the optical pen, the digitizer and the microphone. Peripheral output devices include the monitor, printer, speakers, print plotters, and fax.

Storage devices are related to the input and output processes of information (hard disk, CD player, magnetic tapes or portable memory). There are also communication devices that allow interaction with other machines (the network card, USB ports and the router).

Peripheral devices are a part of the material components of a computer (in computer terms the word hardware is used), which work due to an information processing program (known as software).

Types of Peripheral Devices

Peripheral devices are classified as either an input device or an output device, and some function as both.

These types of hardware include  internal peripheral devices  and  external peripherals, one of which may include input or output devices.

There are three categories of peripheral devices, based on their relationship to the computer:

Many modern electronic devices, such as digital watches that support the Internet, smartphones and tablets, have interfaces that allow them to be used as computer peripherals.

  1. An  input device  sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics tablet, image scanner, barcode scanner, game controller, light pen, light gun, microphone, digital camera, webcam, dance pad  ,  and read-only memory;
  2. An  output device  provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor, projector, printer, headphones, and speaker;
  3. An  input/output device  performs input and output functions like a computer’s data storage device (including a disk drive, USB flash drive, memory card, and tape drive).

Internal Peripheral Devices

Common internal peripheral devices found in a computer include an optical disk drive, a graphics card, and a hard drive.

In these examples, the disk drive is an instance of a device that is both an input and an output device.

It can not only be used by the computer to read information stored on the disk (eg software, music, movies), but also to export data from the computer to the disk (such as when burning DVDs).

Network interface cards, USB, expansion cards and other internal devices that can plug into a PCI Express or other type of port, all types of internal peripherals.

External Peripheral Devices

Common external peripheral devices include devices such as a mouse, keyboard, digital tablet, external hard drive, printer, projector, speakers, webcam, thumb drive, media card readers, and microphone.

Anything that you can connect to the outside of a computer that doesn’t normally operate on its own can be called an external peripheral device.

Examples of peripheral devices

  1. Input: they basically send information to the computer: keyboard, mouse/mouse, joystick, scanner;
  2. Output : they transmit information from the computer to the user: video monitor, printer, speakers;
  3. Processing: process the information that the machine (central processing unit) sent;
  4. Input and output (or mixed): send and receive information from the computer: tactile monitor, CD and DVD recorder, modem. Many of these peripherals depend on a specific card, as in the case of speakers, which need a sound card;
  5. Storage: they store computer information and allow for future recovery: pen drive, hard disk, memory card, etc.
  6. External: equipment added to a peripheral; separate equipment that provides and/or forwards data.
  7. Other functions They are added to the processor through specific cables: this is the case of the Internet, through the network card or router.

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