# Inference

Inference is a **deduction made from information** or reasoning using available data to arrive at a conclusion.

Inferring is deducing a result, by scientific method and the way in which we can make conjectures. However, it is sometimes difficult to understand the logic, based on the interpretation of other information. Inferring can also mean reaching a conclusion from other perceptions or from the analysis of one or more arguments.

Example: If I have money, I will travel. If I go travelling, I’ll be happy. Therefore, if I have money, I will be happy.

The **syllogism** is a model of reasoning based on the idea of deduction from two premises, that is, it is a type of inference.

The word inference comes from the Latin *inferentia* .

The **causal inference** happens when establishing a causal relationship (cause and effect) between facts, from the observation of events.

Example: It is raining. After the rain comes the sun. So the sun should come out soon.

## inference rules

These rules are methods used to make a deduction and arrive at a conclusion from one or more known premises. The basic arguments (premises) are used to arrive at a value (conclusion).

Examples

- Every dog is beautiful. Marley is a dog. Therefore, Marley is handsome.
- If X > 5 = P and X < 1 = P, then X > 5 = X < 1.

In this case X > 5 = P and X < 1 = P are the premises and X > 5 = X < 1 is the conclusion.

## textual inference

Textual inference is related to reading comprehension. It means interpreting the elements that are explicit and implicit in the text, analyzing together everything that was written and understanding the central idea of the text. Textual inference may require some prior knowledge about the topic of reading.

## Statistical inference

Statistical inference draws conclusions from collected sample data. These data are used as a basis for concluding on a given situation or hypothesis. This is what happens, for example, with data collection carried out in the demographic census.

## Examples of inferences

Examples of inferences are the following reasoning:

- All known planets are round and the Earth is a planet, so the Earth is surely round.
- If it dawns every day, it is certain that tomorrow it will dawn again.
- If 70 out of a population of 100 people do not eat meat, it is possible to affirm that the majority of the population is vegetarian.
- If all things fall eventually, when you throw a stone, it will eventually fall.