The arithmetic is the discipline mathematics that studies the numbers and focuses on operations that can be performed. This area of knowledge is based on the need to count the elements that surround us. After the birth of writing, the first Sumerian and Egyptian numbering systems appeared. Egyptian numerals
The first written numbers are no longer associated with things and have their own value. It was the Egyptians of the ancient world who 3000 years ago started the tradition of counting with number signs.
From a historical perspective, the Egyptian system is the foundation of the Greek and Roman modalities.
The Egyptian numbering system had seven symbols
With a vertical bar expressed the number 1. An n-shaped bent loop for the number 10. A spirally wound rope corresponded to the number 100. A lotus flower for the 1000. The index finger pointing upwards represented the number 10,000 . An animal with a tail for 100,000. Lastly, an astronomer with outstretched arms symbolized a million (this symbol is believed to represent an astronomer observing a large number of stars in the sky).
On the other hand, for each value the symbols could be repeated up to a total of 9 times and the tenth time changed to the next higher symbol. With this numbering based on seven signs, it could only represent numbers less than ten million. Egyptian numerals
Although the numbering system was simple, the annotated values could take up a lot of space, as writing some numbers required a large number of symbols. Egyptian numbers were written from right to left and vice versa, as it was a non-positional additive system (we say it is additive, because to know the value of a number, you must add the value of the symbols, on the other hand side, we say it is non-positional because the location of the symbols does not affect the value of the number).
One of the peculiarities of the system is the absence of the number 0.
Each civilization of antiquity had its own numbering mode
The Greeks’ numbering system was based on the letters of the alphabet. The Romans had an alphanumeric system, as they used letters to represent numbers (like the Egyptians, they had no symbol for the number zero). The Chinese invented the abacus system for counting and calculating and used a decimal type system. Egyptian numerals
The numbering of the Mayan culture was similar to the Egyptian one, as ideograms were used. They used numbers to measure time in the Mayan calendar, but not to perform calculations of a conventional mathematical type. Its numbering system had a sign for the number zero.