Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics that studies numbers and operations performed by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.
From an etymological point of view, the word arithmetic comes from the Latin arithmetica, which in turn comes from the Greek term aritmetikos, composed of the root arithmos which means numbers and the suffix tiko which means science. In this way, arithmetic can be defined as the science of numbers.
arithmetic in teaching
Arithmetic has a fundamental place in the educational process . Normally, children begin the study of mathematics through arithmetic, which is the foundation developed by this science.
At a first level, students start learning the simplest and most intuitive operations through addition and subtraction. Once this domain is already in place, the students start learning the multiplication and division tables.
When these arithmetic bases are more solid, it is possible to continue teaching more abstract subjects such as algebra and others of greater complexity.
the history of arithmetic
This science was already known in prehistoric times, being applied by various communities in their daily activities, for example, counting animals to control productivity or measuring time (25000-5000 BC).
History sees the mathematician Diophantus de Alejandria as the father of arithmetic, as well as the father of algebra. During the second century AD laid the foundations of these sciences that we know until today.
Later, the Hindus discovered the existence of the number zero (O) in addition to determining other values depending on its position.
These advances entered Europe through the Arabs from the 8th century AD, leaving mathematics as a major influence on the old continent .
Other cultures developed different number systems, such as the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans who left the base of the decimal system . The Mayans also developed their own number system, but in their case the base was vigesimal.
It is not easy to establish when and how the great advances in arithmetic took place, because for historians, this science occupied a secondary place before the beginning of the Christian era. The only clear issue is that most civilizations have adopted the number ten (10) as a reference, probably based on the number of fingers on our hands.