What is Climate types elements and factors


Climate is the set of climate aspects and variables that act in a given location over time . It brings together, through the definition of various atmospheric elements and factors, the climate characterization of a region. Therefore, the climate is defined by observing the weather over an extended period, thus also being defined as the set of succession of different types of weather.

What are the types of climate?

There are several types of climate, grouped according to the characterizations produced by meteorologists and climatologists, based on the observation of the weather over many years. Below are the main climate types.

Equatorial climate

The equatorial climate occurs in the central portion of the planet Earth , in tropical zones, close to the Equator . It is characterized by the occurrence of high temperatures and large volumes of rainfall. In this climate type, accentuated humidity and small thermal amplitude predominate.

tropical climate

The tropical climate occurs in the intermediate bands of the planet , that is, in the portions located between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn It is marked by the occurrence of two well-defined seasons: a hot and humid one and a colder and drier one. The tropical climate has several subclimates, such as highland tropical, semi-arid tropical and subtropical.

temperate climate

The temperate climate occurs at mid-latitudes, just below the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn . It is characterized by the clear division between the four seasons . Temperatures and humidities in this type are largely influenced by climatic factors. There are two subtypes of it: continental and oceanic.

cold weather

Cold weather occurs in high latitude zones close to the Arctic and Antarctic circles . It is marked by the occurrence of low temperatures throughout the year. The presence of snow is also very common. The cold climate features the cold mountain variation, which occurs in high altitude areas.

polar weather

Polar weather occurs in areas of high latitude, above the Arctic and Antarctic circles . It is characterized by very low temperatures and the recurring presence of snow throughout the year. In this type, there is low presence of humidity and light due to its latitudinal location.

Mediterranean climate

The Mediterranean climate occurs punctually along the Mediterranean Sea , in an intermediate range of latitude on planet Earth. This climate, very close to tropical, is characterized by the occurrence of a very hot and dry summer and, still, a rainy and milder winter.

 desert climate

The desert climate occurs in specific zones of the planet tropical or temperate characterized by scarce precipitation . It has marked thermal amplitude and, in general, low humidity throughout the year. In these zones, the volume of rainfall is very low.

What are the climate elements?

Climatic elements are those that have a direct effect on atmospheric dynamics , decisively influencing the weather and climate of a region, according to its physical characteristics. The four elements that act on the climate of a given location are as follows.


Temperature is a measure of the amount of heat present in the atmosphere . This measurement is usually done in degrees Celsius. In general, warmer regions have low latitude and altitude, while cooler zones have higher latitude and altitude.


Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the Earth’s atmosphere . Traditionally, warmer areas have higher humidity levels, and, in contrast, colder areas have lower humidity.


Radiation is the heat received at the Earth’s surface, especially from the Sun. Low latitude areas, such as the tropics, receive more radiation, while high latitude areas, such as the polar ones, have less radiation.

Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure is a measure of the weight that air exerts on the earth’s surface . Thus, in areas of lower altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is higher, already in areas with higher altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is much lower.

What are the climatic factors?

Climatic factors are physical aspects of the atmosphere that, when studied together and observed over time, contribute to defining the climate of a given region . Next, the main climatic factors that act in a spatial location.


Latitude is the distance in degrees from any point on the Earth’s surface to the Equator . Traditionally, the lower the latitude a region, the higher the temperatures; the higher the latitude of a location, the lower the temperatures found.


Altitude is the vertical distance from a point on the earth’s surface to sea level . In general, higher zones in terms of altitude are cooler; low altitude areas have higher temperatures.

Air masses

Air masses are air bodies that interfere with local climate dynamics . They are characterized, according to their origin, as hot or cold and also dry or wet. They move from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low pressure.

Marine currents

Ocean currents are large bodies of water moving in the oceans . Its climatic characteristics are given by reason of the geographical area of ​​origin. Ocean currents can be warm or cold.


Continentality is a factor that indicates the influence of large portions of land on the local climate . In continental areas, far from large bodies of water, drier climates with high thermal amplitude predominate.


Maritimeity is an indicator that points to the influence of large bodies of water on the local climate . Examples of large bodies of water are the seas and oceans. Areas closer to bodies of water are more humid, while those farther away have lower relative humidity.

Differences between climate and weather

  • Climate: is defined as the succession of types of weather. It brings together the climatic aspects and variables of a location over time, thus referring to the climatic characterization of a region found through the observation of time over many years. The climatic factors and elements interfere in the climate of a region.
  • Weather: is the momentary state of the atmosphere. Therefore, in a daily weather forecast, the weather for that location is defined, that is, what is the state of the local atmosphere for that day. Time varies greatly, especially through the influence of elements and climatic factors, with emphasis on atmospheric pressure and air masses.

weather phenomena

Climatic phenomena are events that occur in the atmosphere and that have the potential to interfere with the weather and climate of a location . They are the result of geographic and climatic particularities and often have important human conditions. They are also directly influenced by the elements and climatic factors. Below, the main climatic phenomena recorded in the Earth’s atmosphere.

El Niño and La Niña

El Niño and La Niña are events characterized, respectively, by warming and cooling, especially in the waters of the Pacific Ocean . They interfere in the climate on a global scale and in a cyclical way, altering the regimes of droughts and rainfall by altering important climatic factors, such as air masses.

Cyclones and tornadoes

Cyclones and tornadoes are characterized by the formation of wind pipes that move in circular fashion on the Earth’s surface . Cyclones are larger than tornadoes. These events have the potential to cause serious damage to human structures as well as the loss of human lives.

Thermal inversion

Thermal inversion , which, although natural, has strong anthropogenic constraints, is characterized by the trapping of cold air close to the surface, superimposed by a layer of warm air . This event is common during the winter and generates an accentuation of the concentration of pollutants close to the surface.

 Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect , of a natural nature, but accentuated by human action, corresponds to the occurrence of an atmospheric layer that contributes to maintaining the heat of planet Earth . However, because of the increase in pollution and other human actions , this phenomenon has generated an increase in terrestrial temperature, impacting the global environment.

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