Applied Linguistics

Deductive method of teaching steps to apply types characteristics examples

Deductive method

The deductive method  is a form of reasoning that derives from the scientific method and whose purpose is to obtain logical conclusions from a group of premises; that is, it is deduced. If the facts or premises are true, the conclusion will also be true. Here we will describe the deductive method of teaching.

An example of the use of the deductive method is: 1-All men are living beings (first premise). 2-Albert Einstein is a man (second premise). 3-Therefore, Albert Einstein is a living being (conclusion).

As can be seen in the example, we first start from a notion or general rule (men are living beings) to reach a specific or particular conclusion (Einstein is a living being). Keep in mind that the conclusions of the deductive method are not necessarily true; sometimes they can be wrong.

This type of reasoning is guided by logic and forces the researcher or student to use both observation and rational thought.

Types of deductive method

Depending on the strategy used, the deductive method of teaching can be:


It is direct when the researcher starts from a single premise to reach the conclusion. That is, it does not require another premise to serve as a bridge or comparison.


The indirect method is much more used than the direct one. It is considered indirect because the researcher uses two premises to reach a conclusion.

Usually, the first premise is based on a universal law, while the second premise focuses on a particular fact. The conclusion is obtained after both premises are reasoned and compared. For example:

  • Premise 1: All mice have large ears and a tail.
  • Premise 2: Mickey has big ears and a tail.
  • Conclusion: Mickey is a mouse.

Steps to apply the deductive method

To use this deductive method of teaching, follow these steps:

1. Define the first premise

To establish the first premise, you must start with observation. That is, first a situation or universal fact is observed that allows building the premise that will guide the rest of the deductive reasoning .

For example: Pedro observed that plants have roots; therefore, his first premise will be “all plants have roots.”

2. Define the second premise

When observing a fact and designating the first premise, another premise must be constructed that will serve as a comparison with the first and that will allow a logical conclusion to be found.

According to the previous example, the process would be as follows: After observing that all plants have leaves and roots, Pedro realized that his cactus has roots. Therefore, Pedro established the following premises:

  • Premise 1: All plants have roots.
  • Premise 2: My cactus has roots.
  • From the comparison of both premises, Pedro will be able to reach a logical conclusion.

3. Establish the conclusion

After elaborating the two premises, we proceed to establish a pertinent conclusion. The conclusion is always logical, but it is not necessarily correct in all cases.

Finally, Pedro’s deductive method would be as follows:

  • Premise 1: All plants have roots.
  • Premise 2: My cactus has roots.
  • Conclusion: my cactus is a plant.

As can be seen, Pedro started from a general law (all plants) to analyze a particular fact (his cactus). Although this method is widely used by researchers and scientists, it is also used by all people in their daily lives, even unconsciously.

Characteristics of the deductive method

Look below the characteristics of deductive method of teaching

Part of the general to arrive at a particular fact

The deductive method starts its reasoning from a universal notion or law, that is, it applies to all things or most of them. It should not be confused with the inductive method , which works in the opposite way, starting from the particular to reach the general.

This is seen in the following deductive reasoning:

  • All living things eventually die.
  • The human being is a living being.
  • The human being eventually dies.

It is used in different aspects of life

The deductive method is used by researchers and scientists in all areas, especially in those disciplines that require observation. However, deductive reasoning is not exclusive to the academic world, since it is also used by people in daily life, many times automatically.

It works from logic

Logic is a science that analyzes the structure of human thought and seeks to establish principles or laws that allow truths to be obtained. For this reason, it is said that the deductive method uses logic to carry out its reasoning, since its purpose is to obtain valid conclusions that can become truths.

Not based on experimentation

This method is theoretical. For this reason, it does not base its studies on experiments or other actions that take place in the laboratory.

It is a methodology with a much more argumentative and predictive approach, with special application in the so-called formal sciences, those disciplines whose basic knowledge is rational and abstract.

it’s systematic

The deductive method is carried out through a series of defined and well-structured processes. This order in the application is essential to obtain useful results.

Examples of using the deductive method

Here are some examples of deductive method of teaching:

dolphins don’t fly

  • Premise 1: No dolphin can fly.
  • Premise 2: Animals that can fly have wings.
  • Conclusion: Dolphins don’t fly because they don’t have wings.

The cat suckles

  • Premise 1: All mammals breastfeed.
  • Premise 2: My cat is a mammal.
  • Conclusion: my cat breastfeeds.

Venus is spherical

  • Premise 1: All planets are spherical.
  • Premise 2: Venus is a planet.
  • Conclusion: Venus is spherical.

beetles are invertebrates

  • Premise 1: Insects are invertebrate animals.
  • Premise 2: Beetles are insects.
  • Conclusion: beetles are invertebrates.

Tuna breathe underwater

  • Premise 1: Fish can breathe underwater.
  • Premise 2: Tuna is a fish.
  • Conclusion: tuna can breathe underwater.

Andrea is elderly

  • Premise 1: People who use a cane belong to the elderly.
  • Premise 2: Mrs. Andrea uses a cane.
  • Conclusion: Mrs. Andrea is elderly.

The cactus needs water and light

  • Premise 1: All plants need water and light to survive.
  • Premise 2: my cactus is a plant.
  • Conclusion: my cactus needs water and light to survive.

The lion may roar

  • Premise 1: All lions can roar.
  • Premise 2: In the animal shelter there is a lion.
  • Conclusion: the lion in the animal shelter can roar.

We hope that you have understood the deductive method of teaching after reading this article.

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