Battle of Junín
War conflict that started the Independence of Peru. In this article we will describe you about the battle of Junín.
|August 6, 1824.
|Junín area, Peru.
|Independence Army vs. Realistic army.
|Victory of the independence army.
What was the battle of Junín?
The battle of Junín was a warlike conflict that took place on August 6, 1824, in the area of Junín, Peru, and in the middle of the process of the independence of the American territories colonized by Spain .
During the battle of Junín the following sides faced each other:
- Independence Army : under the command of Simón Bolívar representing Peru, Colombia and Chile, and with the support of the military Isidoro Suárez and José Andrés Rázuri.
- Royalist army : led by José de Canterac on behalf of the Spanish Empire .
The battle was fought during the process of Independence of Peru and against the royalist troops who resisted these claims. The result was the decisive victory of the independence forces and, together with the battle of Ayacucho , this battle was one of the processes that consolidated the Independence of Peru and the definitive eradication of Spanish rule in America.
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Causes and consequences of the battle of Junín
The Independence of Peru, finally proclaimed on July 28, 1821, required several battles to achieve the surrender of the royalist troops in the viceroyalty, among them that of Junín, which was one of the most crucial.
In 1823, King Fernando VII of Spain abolished the Liberal Constitution of Cádiz , which generated a deep division in the Spanish troops settled in Peru, along with the uprising of General Olañeta against Viceroy La Serna. This fact halved the army loyal to the Spanish Crown.
Thus, with the forces of the viceroy divided, the possibility of a more balanced confrontation between the Spanish forces and the patriots was facilitated , a fact that allowed the independent victory of the battle of Junín.
The victory achieved in Junín, by the Peruvian forces, opened the definitive step towards the Independence of Peru, which was consolidated with the battle of Ayacucho .
In addition, from this conflict the continental leadership of Simón Bolívar was strengthened , who continued to join forces and wills to continue with the Independence of South America.
Peru was a vitally important viceroyalty, both for its access to the Pacific Ocean and for its commercialization through the Andes. In this way, their liberation from the Spanish Crown was a great victory during the American independence process .
After the battle of Junín, many Spanish soldiers fell ill or deserted, which reduced their ability to react and generated a collective effect of frustration and inferiority among them.
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Importance of the battle of Junín
This historical event was of great importance since the overwhelming victory of the patriots started the path towards the definitive surrender of the Spanish in America.
This battle also gave rise to the Battle of Ayacucho, which was fought on December 9, 1824 and definitively sealed the Independence of Peru .
Main characters of the battle of Junín
Among the protagonists who participated in the battle of Junín are:
- José de Canterac (1787 – 1835): leader of the royalist troops who lost the battle.
- Simón Bolívar (1783 – 1830): commander and strategist of the patriotic troops.
- Mariano Necochea (1790 – 1849): Argentine military man who during this battle was wounded and imprisoned, and was later released to victory.
- Isidoro Suárez (1799 – 1846): Peruvian military man who, along with Rázuri, commanded the Húsares of Peru, later called the Húsares de Junín, and whose participation was essential for victory.
- José Andrés Rázuri (1791 – 1883): soldier and leader of Peruvian origin.