The advent of industrialization about two centuries ago resulted in one of the most important events in the history of man . The changes that were generated thanks to industrialization, revolutionized the economy, culture, society and even politics in different parts of the world. How did the industrial revolution change society?
Find out below what industrialization is, what were the causes of its development and how it has affected society to this day.
It is the process by which a society moves from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industrial development . Industry becomes the fundamental socio-economic order, dominating almost every area of a nation’s economy.
This process began when agricultural labor was released, forcing it to migrate to the cities. Advances in the chemical industry improved agricultural productivity and it was this that led to the elimination of labor in the field.
The Industrial Revolution is what is called a process of great technological, economic, cultural and social transformations that took place between the years 1760 and 1840. Although it began in England, it spread throughout the European continent , giving rise to important changes in the social structure and considerable improvements in means of transport. The urban population increased considerably and coal was promoted as the main source of energy.
Why did the Industrial Revolution take place?
There is no specific cause, but rather a set of circumstances that led to the transformation process. First, the abolition of the feudal system after the Bourgeois Revolution of the seventeenth century. England was living in a time of greater civil liberties and stability .
In addition, England had a privileged position in international trade thanks to the large number of colonies it possessed. The trade in products such as tobacco or tea produced great fortunes and caused a rural exodus. Many people left the countryside and moved to the cities to work in the industry . How did the industrial revolution change society?
First Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution itself began in Great Britain around the second part of the 18th century and later spread to other western European countries, the United States and Japan. In this period a series of changes emerged, among them: the appearance of factories and steam-powered machines ( railways and steamships ).
Second Industrial Revolution
The second stage of the Revolution , goes from the end of the 19th century to 1914 at the beginning of the First World War . The appearance of new sources such as electricity and oil stands out, as well as the development of the chemical industry and the appearance of aluminum.
The oil and electricity replaced gradually coal, this causes a big change in the transport system. The plane and the automobile appear, although the railroad is maintained as a means of mass transportation.
The chemical industry is growing, especially the sector in charge of the manufacture of synthetic and plastic materials. Germany and the United States replace Great Britain, becoming the largest industrial powers worldwide. How did the industrial revolution change society?
Third Industrial Revolution
After the Second World War , but especially since 1980, a new stage of the revolution has been observed. Nuclear energy appears , new types of transport, electronics and computing are developed. Telecommunications, robotics and microelectronics, are among the most recent advances of the Revolution.
Changes in technology have caused the industry to expand into third world areas. The new industrial countries are dedicated to developing manufactured products for export.
Changes/impacts on the society
The consequences were very broad and occurred in all areas of society. Large factories were created, especially in the textile sector , relegating artisan workshops to the background. In addition, a new social class was created, the industrial proletariat.
Before the arrival of new inhabitants from the countryside to work in the industry, many cities began to grow exponentially. The size and structure of the cities was modified, which gave rise to hygiene and health problems since the proletarians lived together in very small spaces with hardly any services. How did the industrial revolution change society?
- Steam Engine: The steam engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729), but James Watt (1736-1819) perfected the technique. It was an event that marked a turning point in the Industrial Revolution as the steam engine replaced the use of animal and human energy with steam energy.
- Rail: The development of the steam engine gave rise to the idea of creating steam locomotives that would haul railways along the lines. The first railway line between two cities was built in 1826 and linked Manchester and Liverpool.
- Typewriter: and finally, the typewriter. Pellegrino Turri invented it in 1808, although it is known that previously there were more than 60 attempts or prototypes of this type of machine.
- Manufacturing times of goods are reduced.
- The cost of transportation decreases.
- The amount of surplus allows to open the trade on a large scale.
- The economy is growing in industrialized countries.
- The urban population increases with the arrival of workers to the cities.
- The family structure is modified.
- It improves the quality of life for the middle and upper class.
Industrialization, economically speaking, was a positive process. Even so, some drawbacks also arise, among them: the large population concentration in urban areas and the pollution of air, water and soil, among others. How did the industrial revolution change society?