Different types of wars/civil/defensive/offensive/Trench

Types of Wars

Human history has been stained with warfare throughout its history. Although each war is different, generally its intentions are political and lead to a common result: destruction of infrastructure, environmental damage, excessive loss of human and animal life, a large number of injuries, damage to the civilian population, social damage, among others. others. Different types of wars

When a war occurs, it is common for a winning side to exist according to its military might, strategies, and received support. However, in view of the advancement of technology, some wars have been fought without the winning side being affected in any way. However, in general, the effects of a war tend to reach all its participants. Next, we will make a complete analysis of the most frequent types of wars and their characteristics.

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Civil wars

A civil war is a conflict that occurs in a community, town, city or even in different areas of a country . These military confrontations are formed by civilian groups that take firearms or white weapons in order to attack and defend themselves. In general, those who participate in a civil war belong to a political axis that dominates the nation as opposed to those who oppose an imposed political ideology.

Although in this type of war, each group seeks to impose its point of view, interests and ideologies, these objectives are frequently underestimated by the violent actions of each party, turning into warlike encounters that pursue the domination of a territory and by force implant the objectives pursued .

In Africa, different civil wars have occurred, the vast majority of which have been hidden from public view, due to the little importance given to them by international authorities. Some of these wars become short-lived, however, there are others that have lasted for many years .

On the other hand, the struggle of ethnic groups or races has also been part of the triggers of civil wars around the world, in which race is above any type of ideology, as happened in the Rwandan genocide in the year 1994, where the Hutu civilization waged a massacre against Tutsi civilians. Different types of wars

When these confrontations get out of control, as it was in the aforementioned case, the intervention of foreign nations occurs, in order to control the conflict, or even to support one of the sides.

Another example of civil wars was the Carlist Wars .

Offensive wars

Offensive wars are those military attacks that are carried out through an invasion of the enemy country’s territory . Generally, the great military powers took the initiative in the attack, taking the battlefield away from their nation. However, these wars required a large economic investment on the part of the nation carrying out the invasion .

This type of war demanded the mobilization of troops, war equipment, armaments, the establishment of a food supply plan, the supply of ammunition and the choice of a provisional base of operations. Undoubtedly, these actions required great planning, but as a positive result, the effects caused by a war in their own territory were reduced , where the attacks were usually directed towards the military bases and main cities of the invaded country.

As a clear example of offensive wars we can mention the Napoleonic WarsNapoleon Bonaparte was successful in most of the military actions he led because he had a trained and well-equipped army that quickly adapted to different battlefields .

The key to offensive wars was to carry out a well-organized and unexpected attack. However, some of the offensive wars turned out to be double-edged, since being far from the nation’s base of operations, armies were exposed to being cornered and running out of supplies to help them stay supplied throughout the war. Different types of wars

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Defensive wars

This type of war was based on the defense of a city or a strategic position . In ancient times it was common for empires to fortify their capitals and other major cities with great walls. A clear example of this tactic was the Babylonian empire, who built a protective wall around their capital city. Faced with an attack or siege by enemy troops, the wall system allowed troops to protect the city from an invasion , carrying out attacks from the top of the walls.

Over the years some powers erected fortified castles, which were equipped with cannons that repelled the incursion of enemy armies . For example, the Spanish empire made use of castles within its kingdom and in the colonized lands as a form of effective defense against any announced or unforeseen attack.

With technological advancement and the appearance of modern weapons, many armies used a defensive modality in which they waited for the enemy in their own lands, where they made use of the knowledge of the territory in their favor, which was generally unknown by the invading armies, which which was conducive to planning the fighting. However, the defensive wars were often the cause of destruction, since the battles on different occasions were carried out in the cities.

Today many countries are equipped with military technology that allows them to be prepared to repel an eventual air, sea or land warfare attack. Different types of wars

Trench wars

The trench wars were warlike confrontations that took place in trenches dug into the earth in order to obtain protection from enemy fire . This type of military protection began to be used during the French Revolution and in the Napoleonic Wars . However, they became popular during World War I, as more powerful and effective prototype weapons became present.

Trenches were dug in strategic war positions in order to maintain control or defense of an area of ​​importance . The elaboration of these was generally rudimentary, therefore the soldiers were exposed to the earth, the mud and the environmental elements. Certainly these trenches provided protection against gunfire, but they also gave rise to grenade attacks between the armies of both sides. Often the trenches of both armies were at close distances and the terrain in between was called no-man’s-land, because it was a very dangerous strip, full of barbed wire and even land mines.

Soldiers occupying these positions generally had to endure harsh conditions , in view of the proliferation of rats, lice, mud, snow, and corpses. Some trenches were true labyrinths that served as communication with passageways through which they received reinforcements, equipment, ammunition and food. In addition, some had covered areas where the soldiers could rest.

Currently, this type of war strategy has been partially replaced in view of the new methodologies of confrontations , which generally do not require ground incursions, as happened during the First World War and Second World War. Different types of wars

Wars of revolution

The wars of revolution are those that pursue a radical change in the government structure established in a country . This type of war confronts the government, which can be a monarchy , an extremist or dictatorial regime, against civilians and opposition political leaders who seek a change in the constitution and a total reform in the type of government.

These wars are a consequence of the general malaise in which a society finds itself, both at the civil and military level. They emerge as a radical measure of political change in which it is expected to enforce civil rights and respect for property, as well as an economic channeling that recovers the nation .

Different wars of revolution have been presented around the world. Some obtain an immediate result and others a negative result in the attempt to change . An example of this type of war was the French Revolution, which lasted 10 years, beginning in 1789 and ending in 1799. At that time, the less favored class was mired in poverty, being victims of economic depreciation.

Likewise, the bourgeois class   was facing the abuses of the monarchy, which affected its economic stability. In this way, a general revolt began that ended with a coup by Napoleon Bonaparte. Wars of revolution have caused large numbers of deaths throughout the world , and they have not always had the outcome desired by revolutionaries. Sometimes the end result has been the establishment of another government that makes a change in policy, but establishes a dictatorial government that looks out for its own interests. Different types of wars

Wars of independence

A war of independence is one in which the inhabitants of a given area struggle to separate from a country or free themselves from the dominance of a government that runs them as a colony , limiting their sovereignty and enjoyment of resources. In general, those who participate in these wars are the rebel military forces with civilian support that backs the independence movement.

In political history there have been various wars of independence, many of which were successful. As an example of these wars we can mention the independence wars in which the patriotic forces of each country sought to emancipate themselves from the domination exercised by the Spanish crown. An example of this is the Cuban War .

These wars arose as a result of abuses and lack of benefits for the population , since everything was organized for the benefit of the powers administered by the Spanish government.

Not only in America have these types of wars occurred, they have also taken place on all continents, resulting in the fall of empires and the loss of territories dominated by them . As a final result, many countries achieved their independence through wars. Different types of wars

War of conquest

The war of conquest is intended to extend the territory of a nation by invading the territory of a neighboring or distant nation . Typically, these types of wars were waged against weaker nations, facilitating a successful invasion raid. In many cases, these types of wars were presented with pretexts that covered up the real reason for the invasion.

It has been common for power countries to undertake a war of conquest, ensuring that it was carried out in order to protect their nation or even protect the inhabitants of the invaded area. Some of the triggers of these wars were the annexation of lands with a good strategic location for trade, acquisition of oil areas, agricultural areas and mining areas. However, in many cases the dominance of other nations was synonymous with power and recognition as a world power .

In the ante-Christian era there were powers such as Babylon , Greece and Rome , which through battles extended their dominion in their respective times. In modern times, many powers such as the United States , France, England and Spain waged these types of wars, many times successfully . Different types of wars

Feudal wars

The feudalism was a kind of common government in the Middle Ages . In this system of government, the kings had vassals to whom they gave dominion over lands and cities in order to contribute to the stability of the kingdom by defending its interests . However, this same model began to create instability and claims of right and autonomy on the part of the most influential vassals.

This led to different wars, in which those who at one time supported a government instance, turned against them, creating a feudal war, which can be defined as an internal war, in which the members of the government force they fight for their own interests and ignore the central power . Likewise, a feudal war can be caused by a struggle for dominance of territory between kings.

An example of feudal warfare is the warlike conflict called the Hundred Years War , in which the kingdoms of England and France fought for control of territories that were considered vassals of France, but were claimed by the king of England. This war lasted about 116 years, when the supporters of the French king defeated the English and achieved dominion over the lands claimed by the kingdom of England. Different types of wars

World wars

A world war is a warlike confrontation that faces different nations from several continents . Although there have been several long-range military conflagrations in the history of mankind, the wars that were fought in the years 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 are the most far-reaching and influential in the modern world . In view of the number of countries that participated, they are known as World War I and World War II, respectively.

Although several countries participated in World War I providing support by sending armies, the main belligerents of this war were France, Great Britain and Russia , who faced the Triple Alliance made up of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Italy .

During the Second World War the participation of nations was even wider , with more catastrophic results compared to the First World War . The main nations that participated as allies were: China, Poland, Great Britain, France, Russia and the United States , who fought in opposition to the axis powers, made up mainly of Germany, Italy, Japan , who received the support of other nations. Different types of wars

It should be noted that a large number of countries participated indirectly in this war, providing support by sending troops, supplying fuel or breaking relations with any of the countries involved. In this way, these two world wars had a conflictive participation never seen before . After ending this war definitively on August 14, 1945, a military conflict of such magnitude has not been presented again.

Political wars

Political warfare is characterized by struggles for government control. In some cases, parallel governments are established, accompanied by civil unrest and military actions . Political warfare can have two sides, one of informational control and psychological warfare, as well as the development of struggles between armed guerrillas promoted by political parties of the right and left.

This type of circumstance has led to civil wars, as for many years has happened in many countries in Africa, where in various states the struggle for power has led to massacres in which two or more political factions of a nation clash . Different types of wars

Chemical wars

They are those wars in which chemical compounds with toxic properties are used in order to incapacitate, injure or kill the enemy . Chemical wars differ from biological wars by the fact that they are based on toxic gases and not on highly dangerous biological agents such as Anthrax.

Chemical wars were characterized by the use of weapons that were activated without causing a large explosion, therefore they could go unnoticed at first. The damage lay mainly in the release of toxic gases that could affect the respiratory tract, the eyes, and even irritate and burn the skin . These attacks were generally accompanied by an artillery offensive.

In view of the war conditions, many armies made use of masks that protected the respiratory tract and the eyes of the soldiers . Some of these masks had filters that counteracted gases so that the soldier could breathe decontaminated air.

Chlorine, phosgene, mustard, among others, were part of the chemical gases commonly used in these wars . All the gases used caused different reactions, some were even fatal. The use of these weapons depended a lot on the direction of the wind, if the breeze was in favor, the troops could use it without being affected. However, on some occasions the wind changed direction, affecting the very army that used it. During World War I this type of weapon was widely used, causing more than 85,000 deaths and around 1,177,000 in non-lethal casualties. Different types of wars

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