Teaching method. It is the medium that uses didactics for the orientation of the teaching-learning process.Etymologically the term method comes from the Greek method that means path, path, means to reach the end. In science, the method is defined as a system of rules that serve us to achieve a specific objective and also pursues the best results.
Emergence of teaching methods
Teaching methods arise with the teaching itself, its rationality and scope are determined by social conditions and the development of science . In the ecclesiastical schools and universities of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries of Western Europe the methods used were dogmatic and tended to allow students to learn knowledge by heart. In the seventeenth century, scientific methods began , based on the principles of observation and verification, opposed to the authority characteristic of scholasticism.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the true history of pedagogy begins , Comenius father of Pedagogy works on the elaboration of a method on rational and empirical bases; His pedagogical ideal was to teach everyone everything.
The method is the principal element of the process of education in values. It represents the system of actions of teachers and students, as ways and means of organizing the cognitive and educational activities of the students or as regulators of their interrelated activity, aimed at achieving the objectives. This component is closely related to the content and objective, becoming this relationship in an aspect of special importance for the direction of the pedagogical process. Sometimes the objective is determined and formulated well and the content is well selected, but in terms of determining how to teach and educate and how to learn, it is most often the most complex and difficult element, both for the teacher and for the student.
The method is the component of the pedagogical process that expresses the internal configuration of the process, so that by appropriating the content the objective that is manifested through the pathway is reached, the path chosen by the subject to develop it. The way of developing the process by the subjects is the method, that is, the order, the sequence, the internal organization during the execution of said process. The determination of which way or path to follow also implies an order or sequence, that is, an organization, but unlike the way this organization is a more internal aspect of the process.
It is in the pedagogical process, that content as a culture, as a branch of knowledge, acquires meaning, social meaning, and can be transformed into an objective through teaching-learning and education methods, in communication, in teaching activity ( class, extra-curricular or extracurricular activities). It is based on the place and essential role of the method in the pedagogical treatment of the process of education in values, to the extent that it refers to the effort to reach an end, the set of rules that are followed to achieve a result. An essential aspect to consider is the necessary relationship between the method, the techniques and the procedures, which undoubtedly start from the systemic approach and is specified in each of the ways studied.
General Classification of Teaching Methods
These aspects enhance the positions of the teacher, the student, the discipline and the school organization in the educational process . The aspects taken into account are: in terms of reasoning, coordination of the subject, concretization of teaching, systematization of the subject, student activities, globalization of knowledge, teacher-student relationship, acceptance of what taught and student work .
1. Methods as to the form of reasoning
- Deductive Method: It is when the subject studied proceeds from the general to the particular.
- Inductive Method: It is when the subject studied is presented through particular cases, suggesting that the general principle that governs them is discovered.
- Analog or Comparative Method: When the particular data presented allow comparisons to be established that lead to a conclusion by similarity.
2. The methods regarding the coordination of the subject
- Logical Method: It is when the data or the facts are presented in order of antecedent and consequent, obeying a structuring of facts that go from the least to the most complex.
- Psychological Method: It is when the presentation of the methods does not follow so much a logical order as an order closer to the interests, needs and experiences of the student.
3. The methods regarding the concretization of teaching
- Symbolic or Verbalistic Method: It occurs when all the works of the class are executed through the word. Oral language and written languageacquire decisive importance, since they are the only means of realization of the class.
- Intuitive Method: It occurs when the class is carried out with the constant help of objectifications or concretizations, taking into account the things treated or their immediate substitutes.
4. The methods regarding the systematization of the subject
1. Rigid: It is when the class scheme does not allow any flexibility through its logically assembled items, which do not give any opportunity for spontaneity to the development of the class theme.
2. Semirigid: It is when the lesson scheme allows some flexibility for a better adaptation to the real conditions of the class and the social environment that the school serves.
- Systematization Methods:
- Occasional Method: This is the name of the method that takes advantage of the motivation of the moment, as well as the important events of the environment. The suggestions of the students and the occurrences of the present moment are what guide the themes of the classes.
5. Methods regarding student activities
- Lessons marked in the book of text , which are then reproduced from memory .
- Questions and answers, with the obligation to learn them by heart.
- Dogmatic Exhibition
- Passive method: It is called thus when the activity is accentuated teacher, students staying in attitude passive and receiving skills and knowledge provided by him, through:
- Active Method: It is when the development of the class is taken into account with the participation of the student. The class is developed by the student, becoming the teacher oriented, a guide, an incentive and not a transmitter of knowledge, a teacher.
6. The methods regarding the globalization of knowledge
- Globalization Method: It is when through a center of interest the classes are developed covering a group of disciplines assembled according to the natural needs that arise in the course of the activities.
- Non-globalized or Specialization Method : This method is presented when the subjects and, also, part of them, are treated in isolation, without articulation with each other, becoming, each of them a true course, for autonomy or independence that reaches in the realization of its activities.
- Concentration Method: This method assumes an intermediate position between the globalized and the specialized or by subject. It also receives the method name by time (or epochal teaching). It consists of converting for one period a subject in main subject, the others functioning as auxiliaries. Another modality of this method is to spend a period studying only one discipline, in order to achieve a greater concentration of efforts, beneficial for learning.
7. The methods regarding the relationship between the teacher and the student.
- Individual Method: It is intended for the education of a single student. It is recommended for students who for some reason have fallen behind in their classes.
- Reciprocal Method: The method by which the teacher directs his students to teach their classmates is called.
- Collective Method: The method is collective when we have a teacher for many students. This method is not only more economical, but also more democratic.
8. Methods regarding student work
- Individual Work Method: It is called this way, when trying to reconcile individual differences mainly, school work is adequate for the student through differentiated tasks, directed study or study contracts , leaving the teacher with greater freedom to guide them in their difficulties .
- Collective Work Method: It is the one that relies mainly on group teaching. A study plan is distributed among the components of the group, each contributing a plot of responsibility at all. The work of the students and the collaboration between them results in the total work. It can also be called the Socialized Teaching Method.
- Mixed Work Method: It is mixed when planning, in its development, socialized and individual activities. It is, in our opinion, the most advisable because it gives opportunity for a socializing action and, at the same time , to another of an individualizing type.
9. The methods regarding the acceptance of those taught
- Dogmatic Method: The method that imposes the student to observe without discussion what the teacher teaches is called, in the assumption that this is the truth and can only be absorbed every time it is being offered by the teacher.
- Heuristic Method: (From the Greek heurisic = I find). Is that the teacher encourages the student to understand before setting, implying justifications or logical and theoretical foundations that can be presented by the teacher or investigated by the student.
10. Methods regarding the approach to the subject of study
- Analytical Method: This method involves the analysis (from the Greek analysis, which means decomposition), this is the separation of a tone into its parts or its constituent elements. It is based on the fact that to know a phenomenon it is necessary to break it down into its parts.
- Synthetic Method: It implies the synthesis (from the Greek synthesis, which means meeting), that is, union of elements to form a whole