Argumentative resources types and examples

Argumentative resources

The Argumentative resources are the strategies used by an author when writing an argumentative essay, ie, that which supports their views on a topic and try to persuade and convince the reader. Argumentative resources types examples

They are different ways of justifying an opinion using reasoning, through which experience is appealed or discursive figures are used in order to reflect on the issue in question.

Argumentative resources are the means by which an author tries – and many times manages – to make the reader change his opinion on the subject matter and be persuaded of what he reads. That is why it is essential to have substantiated information.

In other words, the opinion of the author alone is not enough. To argue it is necessary to know the subject and to resort to certain resources to reinforce the approach. We must remember that an argumentative text speaks of a sustained opinion.

Types of argumentative resources

There are several types of argumentative resources that an author uses to support and justify his thesis. Let’s see the main ones.

1-Appeal of authority

The authority or prestige of another author or person (which may be an organization, a group, or an institution, such as Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Congress, the church, etc.) is appealed to support the thesis. Argumentative resources types examples

In this way, the approach will be reinforced by the opinion of this other person, more authorized and legitimate, generally an expert on the subject. For this, various connectors are used, such as “as John says”, “according to”, “as he affirms”, “citing”, and the like.


The analogy is the association of one idea with another, generally better known and more obvious. When this resource is used, the author is expressing that if the subject in question resembles the other, then he will also have a similar conclusion.

The connectors it uses are “as well as”, “likewise”, “such as”, “is the same as”, and so on.


This resource is used when facts, phenomena, or thesis that can be considered under the same rule are listed. The connectors used are usually “generally”, “almost always”, “most of the time”, “generally”.

4-Rhetorical question

The rhetorical question is the question that the author asks himself, from which he does not expect an answer. It is a starting point for talking about or reflecting on the topic.


By exemplifying, mentioning specific cases, the author shows that his opinion is justified. It is usually supported by the resource of generalization. Its connectors can be “for example”, “as well as”, “viz”, etc., and uses hyphens, parentheses, commas.


Comparison is used to contrast or match two different situations, two ideas, objects, people, etc. A relationship of difference or similarity is established between both phenomena to support what is said.

The most common connectors are “is like”, “is worse than”, “is better than”, “is equal to”, “is as … as”, and so on. Argumentative resources types examples

7-Of cause

When the resource of cause is used, the relationships that constitute the causes of the thesis are established; in other words, the reason why a fact is explained or determined is given. Its connectors can be “due to”, “because”, “since”, “by reason of”, and others.

8-Of consequence

Like the previous one, the argument is based on establishing the result or effect of the approach (instead of its causes). For this, it uses connectors such as “consequently”, “therefore”, “as a result”, “therefore”, “consequently”.


The refutation occurs when ideas contrary to the thesis are presented in order to discuss or disqualify them, and thus reinforce the argument in favor of which it is defended. The usual connectors are “however”, “but”, “however”, “it is not true that”, “but”, “on the contrary”, and so on.

10-Statistical data

Statistical or numerical information is provided, taken from reliable sources, to reinforce the proposed thesis. The data is generally unquestionable support.

Examples of argumentative resources

  1. – “Politics is an indissoluble part of life, it is present in every situation, even if it is not noticed. We are, as Aristotle defined us more than 2,000 years ago, political animals ”(Authority).
  2. – “If education doesn’t work, wouldn’t it be better to throw in the towel and accept that nothing will change?” (Rhetorical question). Argumentative resources types examples
  3. – “There are important subjects that should not be missing in any school curriculum, such as history, literature, biology or mathematics” (Exemplification).
  4. – “Every day a million car accidents occur around the world” (Statistical data).
  5. – “Instead of spending so much money in the oil industry, which has done so much damage to the environment, we should pool resources to produce clean energy, such as solar or wind” (Refutation).
  6. – “Attacking water pollution is as urgent as undertaking reforestation projects in desert areas” (Comparison).
  7. – “Punishing children with blows are not effective because they are taught to use violence to solve problems” (De causa).
  8. – “When we educate ourselves in empathy we are capable of putting ourselves in the place of the other. Consequently, we will better understand other people’s points of view ”(Consequently).
  9. – “The vast majority of illegal immigrants are poor” (Generalization).
  10. – “Just as there are unjust and intolerant people, there are also generous and supportive” (Analogy).
  11. – “The death penalty still exists in several countries, such as China, the United States and in a large part of the Muslim nations” (Exemplification).
  12. – “The heart is a pump that beats an average of 70 times per minute, 100,000 times a day, 35 million times a year” (Statistical data).
  13. – “There are Spanish-speaking authors as good as those who speak English or French” (Comparison).
  14. – “As Fernando Savater said so well in his Ethics for Amador, one always has the option of choosing, until the last minute, to do what seems right to us” (Authority).
  15. – “Many men refuse to talk about their feelings, but that is a taught behavior more than natural” (Refutation).
  16. – “Is it true that women don’t like science?” (Rhetorical question).
  17. – “Literature is the art of putting into words the emotions and everything that the person who writes lives. Therefore, we could say that it is a testimony of the historical moment of the writer ”(Consequence). Argumentative resources types examples
  18. – “In general, we tend to shut up the true answer when they ask us how we are” (Generalization).
  19. – “An artist, when he creates his work of art, behaves like a god” (Analogy).
  20. – “Women, in recent years, have held positions of great importance, as well as the presidency of their countries. To mention a few, there are Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, Zuzana Caputova, head of state of Slovakia, or Sanna Marin, the Prime Minister of Finland ”(Exemplification).

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