Language and Linguistics

Agglutinative language

Agglutinative type of languages

Agglutinative language

This term comes from the Latin  agglutinatio  and translates as gluing . Based on the name itself, agglutinative languages ​​are languages ​​in which the so-called formants play the main role in the formation of words: suffixes, prefixes, affixes, prefixes. At the same time, the rule works: one formant – one value.

The work of this type of language can be illustrated by an example. The basis of the word is a locomotive, and the additional parts of the word, formants, act like cars. They are attached to the locomotive base according to certain laws and in a certain sequence. There can be one or several wagons. In some languages, there are examples where the word base consists of only 3-5 letters, but due to additional parts, the word increases to 30-40.

Agglutinative languages (agglutinative languages), languages, morphological. which is constructed substantially prevails agglutination . They have a rich system of inflection and word formation on the basis of affixes , which are characterized by uniqueness and lack grammatical. and morphological. (see. morphonology ) variability (special case – a variation on the rules of vowel harmony); for A. I. a typically uniform structure will change. systems – declination and conjugation (cf. the presence of different types of declination and conjugation in a non-agglutinative Russian language). To A. I. include Turkic (a typical representative of A. ya. – Turkish. language), Finno-Ugric, Mongolian, Bantu and some other languages. And I. opposed insulating languages and inflected languages .

Types of modern languages

Modern linguistics uses the following classification:

1. By grammatical characteristics:

  • analytical;
  • synthetic.

2. According to morphological characteristics:

  • insulation;
  • agglutinative language;
  • inflectional or fusional;
  • other applicable.

However, these two categories should not be confused. In fact, almost all isolating languages ​​coincide with analytical languages. Nevertheless, completely different factors are considered here. And the morphology in this case is much more interesting.

agglutinative

This term is not only used in linguistics, but also in biology, for example. With regard to Latin, which is, so to speak, the “mother” of the majority of terms, a literal translation would sound like “bonding”. Agglutinating type of language suggests that the formation of new lexical units takes place at the base or root of attachments (affixes): suffixes, prefixes, etc. It is important that each of formant corresponds to only one value, with virtually no exceptions. in the rules of bending and conjugation. It is believed that this type is older and less developed compared to bent. However, there is evidence and the opposite view, as long as there is no reason to consider more primitive adhesive languages.

The phenomenon of agglutination can be considered in the example Kirghiz language, which is a dictionary unit, which can be translated into “dostrum” in Russian. “Dos” is the basis that means “friend”. The ‘torus’ part indicates a plural. “Spirit” bears the sign of belonging to the first person, that is, “my”. Finally, ‘a’ indicates the date phase. The result is “my friends.”

inflectional

In this group, the formants involved in word formation can bear different grammatical features that are inextricably linked. So, for example, happens in the Russian language.

In the word “green” there is an end – for him, combining the signs of the dative function, the singular and the male gender in one go. Such formants are called inflexions.

Traditionally this type of language includes almost all stable Indo-European: German, Russian, Latin and also Semitic and Saami groups. Researchers have noted the tendency of flexing loss as the development of speech. English used to belong to this group, and now it is in fact almost analytical with the preservation of a few principles. Another example of the transformation can be called Armenian, who has experienced the influence of Caucasian dialects and has moved into the right category. Now it is an agglutinating language.

insulating

This type is characterized by an almost complete absence of morphemes. Word formation usually happens with the use of official words, rigid structure in sentences and even intonation.

An excellent example for this category is Classical Chinese language, which contains absolutely no concepts such as declination of word types and conjugation of verbs. To indicate whether there has been an action in the past or whether this will happen in the future, the circumstance of time and sometimes the official words are used. Bundles are used for the expression of connection and special particles are used to formulate questions. At the same time, a correct understanding of the meaning of sentences is achieved because of the strict order of words. A similar situation is observed in Vietnamese, Khmer, and Lao.

Very close to this type and English, almost completely lost the signs of inflectivity.

included

This relatively new category, not included in the classic typology, has much in common with agglutinative. In fact, these two phenomena are of the same nature and often occur together. Nevertheless linguistics distinguishes them, since agglutination only influences the word, then incorporation can be observed in the whole sentence, that is, a unit can be expressed in a complex verbal nominal complex.

mixed

Separately, this type is not isolated, but prefers these or other temporary forms of transitional forms, if they both show signs of inflexibility, and in some respects can be classified as an agglutinating language. This is Russian, Caucasian, Hamito Semitic, Bantu, North American and some others. They are usually simply referred to as synthetic, indicating the degree of bending.

Whatever the case, it is quite difficult to choose agglutinative, inflectional, isolating and incorporating languages ​​in pure form. Somehow almost every example will bear the small qualities of the others. This is due to both the evolution and the close interaction between languages ​​in the modern world of a large number of loans and tracing.

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